Writing essays custom
In his survey of the schools of Madison, Starch has shown that legibility increases tremendously through the first four years of schooling, but after that remains practically station- ary.
During the same period form improves correspondingly, j but continues to improve after no increase in legibility is noticeable. This is due to the fact noted before, that all writ- ings of Quality 9 or better are approximately the same in legi- bility. Since the maximum of legibility is reached at the end of the fourth year of teaching, it is only reasonable to dis- continue formal lessons in writing at that time. The average writing of school children at the end of the fourth year is ade- quate for its purpose — it can be read as easily as the best penmanship of the last year. To continue instruction in writ- ing beyond that period simply implies a fundamentally wrong view of the place of writing as a school subject. Let it be treated as a means to an end, but not as an end in itself. These arguments must be conditioned by a further factor. In other words, is ease of production suffi- ciently advanced to warrant discontinuing instruction in writ- ing? The eighth grade shows little gain over the seventh. An analysis of the factors upon which speed depends shows that they are three, viz. A good writing movement can be taught in four years or less. As a matter of fact, the type of movement will have be- come habitual long before the expiration of the fourth year of school life, and will be modified only by the increasing matur- ity of the child. There is, therefore, no reason why the for- mal teaching of writing should continue beyond this period so far as acquisition of good movement is concerned. In the discussion of the writing habit, it was clearly shown that the greatest help to the acquisition of an automatic writ- ing habit is the continual use of writing in original composi- tion, as such practice forces the mind to deal with the thought to be expressed, and so gives the muscle-sense a chance to take control of the movement.
If this be true, the acquisition of speed will follow more quickly from the everyday work writing essays custom of the school in all subjects than from formal writing-lessons, 92 which tend to hinder the automatization process by the very- fact that in them attention is centred on the writing. That this is true, and not merely a theoretical conclusion is shown by the following table, which essay on the help shows the results of a test con- ducted by Dr. Of these schools system A and B teach no fixed system, and de- vote no time to penmanship writing essays custom as such.
D spends 75 to 100 minutes in these grades on penmanship, E 60 to 90 in grade 7 and 60 in grade 8. It is at once apparent that A and B have developed fast writing of fair quality at no time-cost whatever.
C at a small time-cost shows practically the same results as A and B.
The other systems have developed form at the expense of speed, particularly G. The average quality of A, B and C is quite adequate, being well above quality 9 on the Thorndike scale. Formal instruction in writing will improve quality,! Further, the improvement in quality usually is only temporary, as adults do not maintain the standard reached through school instruction.
On the other hand, very often writing essays custom the brightest pupils are among the poorest writers. One would expect to find a very low degree of correlation between hand-writing and general ability. That this is true, the following investiga- tions make abundantly clear. GeselP examined 1,260 specimens of writing submitted by grades I.
Each of 105 teachers submitted four groups of three samples each representing : (1) The three best writers in the class. He concluded from his investigation that there is a high positive correlation between accuracy of handwriting and in- tellectual ability. Thorndike, however, writing essays custom claims that GeselFs figures really show a correlation of only about. Accuracy in Handwriting as Related to School In- telligence and Sex.
The investigation dealt with the papers of 1,100 boys. He found a lower correlation between handwriting and other abilities than writing essays custom between any other pair of subjects. He found that the correlation between scholar- ship grade and quality of handwriting was zero.
For 22 from the worst third, the median grade was better than B —. With writing we may class reading, spelling and compo- sition in a single group of closely related school subjects. They all deal with language, and the aim of all is to develop a reasonable skill in the use of the mother tongue.
The psychological process may be roughly divided as follows: (1) An impression upon the retina of the eye followed by the percept of the word or words seen. We be- gin with the meaning, pass through the silent articulation of the word to its imagery, and that stimulates the proper motor centres and the writing follows. It is evident that the two pro- cesses have common ground in the two middle sections, though the direction is reversed.
We may say, then, that writing and reading have common material in the words used.
The process, however, which brings home the meaning of words when read, and that which produces written words when meant, are so entirely differ- ent that it is doubtful whether any clear case can be made out for believing that a close relationship between the two can be established. Still, it is true, that writing uses the results of reading, and in so far as that is true, is one reason for a child learning to read before it learns to write. Our outline of the mental process preceding spontaneous writing brings in another factor.
Spelling is of importance only in written language, and, therefore, we must carefully consider spelling in its relationship to writing.