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The principles of inductive science apply to all F 2 68 UNITY OF SCIENCES. All nature physical truth and the investigation of all physical subject to law and causes. Humboldt observes, "All myths about impon- derable matters and special vital forces inherent in organised beings, only render views of nature per- plexed and indistinct.

But there is another plea on which the phy- physiology. It is of course obvious that throughout these F 3 70 UNITY OF SCIENCES. The dis- sciences, perpetual instances of such adaptation of tinction not ten- write my research paper free structure to the ends and purposes of life are able. So rapid is the mental operation by which the inference of design in these cases flashes upon us, and so immediate is the impression, that it may seem almost to precede, or at least to go hand in hand with observation, without waiting for formal deduction : so that we may not unnaturally deceive ourselves, and may sometimes mistake it for an intuitive notion, acquired antecedently to the actual examination of organised structures, and may even imagine (as some have even maintained on philosophical grounds) the idea of a purpose, and end and means, is an integral part of our very idea of an organised being. It is, however, in strictness, not merely from Not essen- tial, but in- observation, but by a considerable exercise of in- cidentai. There is no essential distinction in kind between our conception of the one or the other. It is true we soon come practically and habitually to include these effects in the complex current idea of an organised being, and are unconsciously and involuntarily led as it were to connect these conditions with the idea of plan and intention, and to assume the relation of these as that of ends and means. But we are here con- cerned only with the analysis of our ideas.

More en- That a combination of arrangements, perhaps larged views ,. But such instances arising in the contemplation of organised structures do not stand in any way peculiarly distinguished in their nature from other cases of the like adaptation of means to an end in the wider arrangements of un- organised matter. Reduced to its proper place in the philoso- phical system, the case is simply this : most disco- veries in physical science are originally prompted and suggested by some previous conjecture. Nothing can be more fruitful in furnishing such conjectures than the habitual recourse to instances of adaptation to an end in organisation already known, whence the enlightened physiologist often receives the most valuable hints, and frames the most probable con- jectures as to those which are as yet unknown.

The object is not in this place to enter on the Unity of composition general argument of " final causes : " and in re- the true principle of ference to the present subject I will only remark, philosophi- cal physio- that the wider extension of physiology by the intro- lo sy- duction of the more enlarged and modern principle of " unity of composition," besides its proper claims 74 UNITY OF SCIENCES. There is nothing unity of physiology exclusive or peculiar in the study of organised with other sciences. It will, however, hardly be denied that man, con- sidered in his animal nature alone, is very little supe- rior to brutes, and in some respects inferior. In the scale of mere animal organisation, the difference between the lowest human form and the highest monkey is not greater than between one class of monkey and another. To what extent mind and volition, especially in their lower functions, in man are different from the corresponding manifestations the help essay on racism in inferior animals, is doubtless a very important question of psychology.

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To draw the line may be difficult or impracticable. Now on this most important point I would only ob- serve one thing in reference to our present subject: the assertion in its very nature and essence refers wholly to a DIFFERENT ORDER OF THINGS, apart from, and transcending, any material write my research paper free ideas whatso- ever : hence it cannot be affected by any considerations or conclusions belonging to the laws of matter or nature.

As, then, the foregoing consideration refers to the similar distinction study of the existing relations of organised life and of as to the past. We need seek for no more peculiar or occult cause in the one case than in the other. From this brief discussion, which was rendered necessary in order to meet some apparent exceptions Unity of write my research paper free to the general view and assertion of the unity of sciences re- presents sciences, we may now return to the main conclusion, unity of nature. Sciences in All science then is emphatically one : in all its parts different stages of and branches, however apparently distinct, or sup- advance.

But all sciences approach perfection as they ap- AH sciences proach to a unity of first principles, differently towards showing the applied, indeed, according to the different nature of unity of nature, the material objects contemplated, but in all cases recurring to or tending towards certain high ele- mentary conceptions which are the representatives of the unity of the great archetypal ideas according to Avhich the whole system is arranged. Inductive conceptions, very partially and imperfectly realised and apprehended by human intellect, are the ex- ponents in our minds of these great principles in nature. The great inference of uniformity is corroborated 80 UNITY OF SCIENCES. The vast assem- preme mind - blage of physical causes, the great principles, whether of cosmical force or of the minutest molecular affec- tions, as they exist in the heavens or in terrestrial ESSAY I. All science is but the partial reflexion in the reason of man, of the great all-pervading reason of the universe. And thus the unity of science is the reflexion of the unity of nature, and of the unity of that supreme reason and intelligence which pervades and rules over nature, and from whence all reason and all science is derived. Hindrances As real physical analogies form the true ground of to science ,... In the earlier stages of induction, laws are as- Exceptions and ano- signed of a limited character, circumscribed by many maiies maintained reservations, and qualified by various exceptions and as real principles. Yet it has sometimes write my research paper free happened that such limited views have been converted into positive and general dogmas, from neglecting the obvious caution of always speaking of them as provisional. Thus sometimes, on the one hand, an unduly Authority of a name. This erroneous first conception long retarded dis- covery. It, however, shelters itself under the au- thority of Newton, who assumed it without question, perhaps even as a natural consequence, from the fact, that as spectra given by prisms of all substances are analyses of white light, and can be recompounded into the same white light, the ingredient tints must in all cases be in the same proportion.

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