Write my history essay

This I suppose is an example of classical conditioning which was investigated and discovered by Pavlov.

The point here is that it is evident that in these recalls this passage is reconstructed in very much the same way as it was used by the author, i. Consider now other ways of reconstructing this passage. The following recall of the text is given by Suzy: Suzy: There was a lot said about Skinner and, for instance, Ivan Pavlov and the psychologist Ebbinghaus and research results. Here the torture passage is mentioned as if it were in itself part of the write my history essay main theme of the text. Another example of how this passage was perceived yields signs of similar problems: Interviewer: Do you remember the very first example in the text, I mean the example that the whole text started with? Sean: Yes, it was about torture, a man was being tortured.

LEARNING FROM READING 79 Interviewer: Could you tell me a bit about it? And, how there were people around him exposing him to different kinds of experiments. I do remember though that it all ended with their leaving him on his own... Interviewer: Why was it placed here, this example, do you think? Sean: Yes it was to show through violence one can get people to learn other things than what they have learnt before. Well, it was probably some opponent of the Greek junta and they tried to get him to get rid of... Here we can note two features that are interesting from the point of view of knowledge mediation through reading. First, although Sean recounts the torture scene at considerable length and quite accurately, he does not say anything about the process of conditioning which was obviously the reason why the passage had been selected as an appropriate part of the present text. Again from a communication perspective this can be considered as a distortion in the figure-ground relationships of the text.

It can be considered, and used, as write my history essay a story illustrating how torture is used for political purposes, to brainwash dissidents. In that sense this recall is a reasonable and perfectly coherent mode of retelling this section, but — and this is our point — not of reconstructing its message within the overall framework of the text. To give another illustration of the problems of establishing inter- subjectivity between text and reader, we can take a passage which was an example to illustrate something general. The passage dealt with the difference between a deep and a surface approach to learning, which has been examined in previous chapters of the present book. The example used was about the training of graduate professionals and of sub- professionals in developing countries as compared to industrialized ones. It was pointed out that in developing countries, this proportion is often very unfavourable, while in the industrialized countries it is much better (meaning a higher proportion of sub-professionals to professionals). The countries used as illustrations were, on the one hand, Chile, and on the other the USA and Sweden, and the occupational groups used as concrete examples for the comparisons were doctors and nurses.

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Neither Suzy nor Stan relates this passage to the topic of learning.

What is said about Chile is treated as if it formed a part of the main theme of the text itself, and not as if it were a means to concretize differences in the outcome of learning. Stan: There were examples from the situation in Chile, where there were three doctors to one nurse or something like that, from a Swedish point of view a very bad proportion and even more so compared to America where there were seven nurses for every doctor, I think. I mean, its the same impression that you get from reading the newspapers, for instance, about how things are in the underdeveloped countries. LEARNING FROM READING 81 By contrast, Dora and Dave clearly perceive that the information about the education of doctors and nurses in different countries has the status of an example. Dora: Then there write my history essay was a discussion about the value of different kinds of learning and well, there were other students who had to read another text and they also had to relate this text. It was a text which examined the working relationship between professionals and sub-professionals.

Dave: Here they account for yet another example of experiments on how a text was read. They had read about this relationship, that qualified professionals need a large number of special assistants to be able to function properly and there was an example of doctors versus nurses.

Thus, a doctor should ideally have a greater number of nurses than the other way around.

And then they had seen what these persons got out of this text and. This contrast between the two groups of exemplars was again apparent at a later stage in the interviews, when participants were specifically asked why this particular example had been introduced. The responses given by Dick, Dora and Dave provide further confirmation that they have grasped the illustrative function of the example. He appears to have interpreted the text as dealing with classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning, learning through language and the education of professionals and sub-professionals in various countries.

Stan, on the other hand, perceives that this passage has the role of an example, but he is completely mistaken about what it exemplifies. Stan: Yes, in that context it should probably have some... Yet the difference between the two groups of exemplars is less a question of what is understood and remembered than of the extent to which what the author attempts to make known is reconstructed. Suzy, Sean and Stan do not seem to have any difficulties in understanding the two passages per se. Rather what appears problematic, it seems, is to discern and to attend to the professional custom essays particular aspects of these illustrations that are relevant to the line of reasoning adopted by the author. Suzy, Sean and Stan seem to have adopted what Svensson (see Chapter 4) calls an atomistic approach.

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