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The amount of deviation in the judgments of the thirty-three observers was calculated after reducing the ratings on both scales to a common basis in order to make them comparable. It was found that with the great majority of the twenty-four samples, the Thorndike scale gave the more uniform results, as the deviation among different individuals was less than on write my college paper for me the Ayres scale. Further, this greater uni- formity was distributed pretty evenly over all the observers. Pintner, therefore, considers the Thorndike scale to be the more reliable one.

He attributes this greater reliability to the fact that it has taken into account all those factors that go to influence our judgment of hand-writing, and does not depend upon legibility alone. These results are the more striking because the observers in this experiment preferred the Ayres scale to the Thorndike. This was due probably to the convenient form of the scale and to the percentage system used in marking the steps. Pintner believes that the Thorndike scale could be made more conveni- ent for the user by placing the samples vertically instead of write my college paper for me horizontally, and by marking off the different steps more clearly from each other. The percentage system of marking steps, as the most familiar one to the average teacher, would perhaps be an improvement. A Comparison of the Ayres and Thorndike Hand- writing Scales. Each chart represents three degrees of excel- lence, numbered 1, 3, 5, in ascending help writing scholarship essays order of merit. The specimens for these charts were selected by grading a large number of specimens of the writing of children from grades three to eight into as many ranks as could be distinguished, according to each of the five categories which are represented on the scale. In some cases four, in others five ranks could be distinguished.

This formed a tentative scale by which twenty-three advanced students graded 100 specimens into ten ranks according to each category.

Ten specimens were then selected to give ten approximately equal steps for each category on the basis of the average judgments of all the graders. The scale so obtained was remodeled by basing the order of the specimens as far as possible upon objective measurements of the characteristic or by employing some means to exaggerate the characteristic to make judgment easier. Letter formation is picked out as being the most im- portant factor in legibility, and receives the values 2, 6, and 10 instead of 1, 3, 5. A specimen is graded by comparing it with the five charts in turn, and assigning a value for each characteristic meas- ured. A total value may be assigned by adding the individual measures. In this way equal weight is given to each char- acteristic measured, with the exception of letter formation, which Freeman considers the fundamental basis of legibility, and, therefore, is given double value. For instance, if a specimen grades low in uniformity of slant and alignment, and high in write my college paper for me letter formation and spacing, clearly the writer fails in the characteristics which depend on the writing movement, but is successful in the characteristics which depend upon the recognition of the form of the written words.

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The teacher must in this case direct instruction towards securing a smooth, well co-ordinated movement. Fur- ther, the difference between any two steps is far too great.

It is doubtful that the form of letters should receive twice the value of other characteristics. Attention to spacing, espe- cially the spacing of words, increases the legibility of writing more than attention to the form or regularity of letters. He concluded that spacing and regularity are more important factors in legibility than form. They believe that their work incorporates the merits of the writing scales described above, and supplies some of their defects. Too wide, too close, or irregu- lar spacings were counted as undesirable. On this basis, 21 teachers and expert penmen, and 4 psychologists ranked 300 specimens selected by chance from 3,550 samples provided by nine schools in New York City. Each judge ranked the three hundred specimens into eight piles professional essay writing help three times, once for form, once for movement, and once for spacing. The average rank for each specimen was then determined, and the best and the worst selected cheap term papers for sale as the top and bottom of the scale. The proper rank that the six intervening samples should have was then determined exactly, and specimens selected whose average iSandiford, Peter. Three scales thus were formed, each containing eight samples in order of merit with approximately equal dif- ferences between them.

Arbitrary values of 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 were assigned to the eight scale points. It is more accurately and scientifically constructed. It also gives eight qualities instead of only three, permitting a closer grad- ing. It should prove helpful to the teaching profession, when made available for their use. It remains true, none the less, that a scale for merit will prove the most useful one. But it seems sure that the scale of most importance and write my college paper for me usefulness is that for general merit.

General merit is that for which school grades are oftenest given, in respect to which school systems or classes are oftenest compared, and with which other features of a pupiFs achievements are oftenest related. Moreover, only after a scale for general merit has been made can one measure the extent to which legibility, beauty, etc. Further, this difficulty can be largely overcome by practice. The differ- ence between the highest and lowest value given any sample was at first high, averaging in the first week 20. By the 15th week this variability was re- duced to 3. A period of such training offers an avenue of approach to the ability to grade expertly in a subject, an ability previously assumed to accompany an expert knowledge of the subject. This im- plies that grading may be considered a field more or less by itself. To illustrate: In the subject of writing such a field would have its chief interest in the expert application of standardized units for measuring writing rather than in the psychology or pedagogy of the subject.

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