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Still less do the facts of corresponding series of species in different continents or large districts of the earth affect the question of transmutation, since within each district such succession might have gone on separately from two parallel species now extinct. It is even possible that the more remote progenitor- species in the two districts might have been more ESSAY III. On the whole, then, comparing the limited extent Conclusion. But under the same change of condi- tions one species may be highly susceptible of, and sensitive to, the influence of that change, while another may be insensible to it.

Thus one may remain permanent, while another may undergo change, or even be exterminated. Speaking of the opinion of the formation of organ- ised beings out of their inorganic elements, Dr. Some naturalists of the present day are disposed to admit this also, and to account for the changes in the races of plants and animals which geological researches reveal. No such new creations are known to us at the present time, and therefore it can only be argued from analogy that they ever existed. We may believe that there exists in all matter a tendency to become organised, without relinquishing the doctrine that for the maintenance of such tendency a previously existing organism is required, to collect and unite the scattered elements by the powers with which it alone is endowed That species have in all ages of the globe maintained their present uniformity and narrow limits of variation the author is not dis- posed to assert, and he thinks that many facts tend to prove the relaxation at former epochs of the strict- ness of the laws which are at present regarded as governing their modification and reproduction. But it may be asked, is any " relaxation" in former epochs -necessary to be sup- posed, when we simply take into account the enor- mous and inconceivable length of time implied in 410 PHILOSOPHY OF CREATION. Do we require anything more than the strict observance of the very where can i buy research papers online same laws of slight changes of forms accompanying corresponding changes of condition, acting through periods of incalculable length?

Legitimate But while on these points we have confessedly no conjectures from pri- positive evidence, it is fairly open to conjecture, mordial unity of whether the views now universally adopted by the structure. We have already considered that grand fact on which the whole theory of unity of composition is based, the existence of a stage in the early evolution of every class and order, during which a community of form belongs to them all.

At this stage there exists no difference between them, and out of this primitive common germ or rudiment any one of the more distinct specific forms might, as far as we know, be equally produced, provided the determining causes for that particular modification were present. Of the nature of those specific determining causes nothing whatever is at present known. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ARISING OUT OF THE PRECEDING EVIDENCE. Argument In the first place, then, the belief in the essential for immu- tability of and inherent immutability of species, not only in the ESSAY III. This argument, however, appears to me altogether But dif- ference in unfounded.

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The laws of gravitation, where can i buy research papers online heat, light, equilibrium, and the like, present positive proof of their influence in the records preserved to us through all geological time. Again, in regard to the mechanical laws of the Mechanical laws proved 414 PHILOSOPHY OF CREATION. The case is by no means analogous (as some seem to suppose) with that of the planetary perturbations.

They would argue that, as the law of elliptic motion has held good, subject to those small deviations, through all the past existence of the system, so the permanence of species must have held good, allow- ing for like small deviations from type in occasional varieties. But the cases are obviously not parallel : in the former, the perturbations are all parts and consequences of the same principle and law of gravi- tation, perfectly understood and demonstrated by calculation to be in long periods perpetually com- pensated, so as to preserve the system. In the other case, the law (if it were such), is merely empirical: we know of no principle or reason for it.

Again : the utmost extent of proof which can be ESSAY III. If those conditions were materially altered, no present experience will enable us to predict the result. Now, the stability even of the planetary system is constant only as long as the same conditions remain. Let them be altered in the slightest particular, let a period, an eccentricity, or an inclination of one orbit, be changed, and the whole stability vanishes.

Immense lapse of time essen- tial to changes of species. Now the argument of "where can i buy research papers online conformity to experience" is beyond question the very basis of all induction, but it requires some caution in its application. And on ex- amining the argument, as here applied, we shall find that there is a fallacy latent in the use of the ex- pression, fe we have no experience of such a thing.

Yet in past epochs we know it occurred, and it is accounted for by known and existing causes.

The submergence of forests, the accumulation of vegetable matter, the compression of materials by superincumbent masses, whether solid or fluid, are known natural causes, which do, or might, occur within our experience or that of history.

To how great an extent these success- ive deviations might be carried in immense periods of past time under changing external conditions, we know not. Thus this known cause, like that of the submer- gence of vegetable masses, conjoined with the influence of incalculably vast periods of past time, MAY BE fully competent to give results as remote from those now every day seen, as the formation of coal has been, from what takes place in any submerged forest or accumulation of vegetable matter in recent times. They do not maintain that it occurs under existing conditions, but only under great and peculiar changes of condition. Any Correct f a j r an( j C0 rrect statement of the case, then, must statement of the case, where can i buy research papers online include these qualifications, We cannot say that we have no experience of a change of species in a due length of time, and under adequate and appro- priate changes of external condition.

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