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Twenty-seven per cent of secondary mentors were deputy heads.

Gender In all, 76 per cent were female (in secondary schools, 38 per cent of mentors were male compared with 15 per cent in primary schools). Ethnicity Mainly white (95 per cent), with small proportions of Indian, Black Caribbean, Black African and Pakistani. Phase of school Years in teaching Role in school 304 (60 per cent) taught the primary age range, 197 (39 per cent) were from secondary schools and four (1 per cent) taught in SEN schools or PRUs. The majority of surveyed mentors had considerable teaching experience: 42 per cent had been in the profession for 2 1 years or more, while 29 per cent had between 1 1-20 years of service. Newer staff were also acting as mentors at both primary and secondary level: 8 per cent had 2-6 years of experience and 17 per cent had been teachers for 7-10 years. In primary schools, mentoring was frequently performed by very senior staff: 58 per cent of primary mentors were deputy heads or headteachers.

In secondary schools, the mentoring role was performed most often by heads of department (34 per cent of mentor respondents from these schools held this responsibility). Thirty per cent of secondary mentors were deputy heads. The Impact of Collaborative CPD on Classroom Teaching and Learning: How Does Collaborative Continuing Professional Development (CPD) for Teachers of the 5-16 Age Range Affect Teaching and Learning? In: Research Evidence in Education Library, Version 1.

Learning and Teaching: a Strategy for Professional Development. Excellence and Enjoyment: Learning and Teaching in the Primary Years. Pedagogy and Practice: Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools.

Classroom Assistance: Why Teachers Must Transform Teaching. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis : Methods and Applications.

Evaluation of Early Professional Development for Teachers in their Second and Third Years of Teaching - Second Interim Report. Evaluation of Early Professional Development for Teachers in their Second and Third Years of Teaching - First Interim Report.

Box 5050 Sherwood Park Annesley Nottingham NG1 5 ODJ Tel: 0845 60 222 60 Fax: 0845 60 333 60 Minicom: 0845 60 555 60 Oneline: www. GAO obtained and analyzed data on college and university endowments from the Department of Education and other sources.

Because industry-wide data were not available on endowment restrictions and distributions, GAO selected 10 colleges and universities for case studies. The case-study institutions were selected to include a mix of public, private, large, small, and minority-serving institutions. Information from these schools cannot be generalized to all U. What GAO Recommends GAO is not making any recommendations in this report.

Officials at the schools GAO selected as case studies were asked to review information in this report concerning their institutions. GAO incorporated these technical comments as appropriate.

Among types of institutions, private schools tended to have larger endowments than public schools, while schools with high minority enrollment tended to have smaller endowments than other schools. Despite these recent losses, endowments at case-study what is the best paper writing service schools showed average, inflation-adjusted long- term growth of 6. Most endowment growth at case-study schools was from investment earnings. Postsecondary Institution Endowment Assets, 2008 End-of-year endowment market value, 2009 dollars 889 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 Number of institutions Source: GAO analysis of Department of Education data. Most endowment assets at case-study schools were restricted by donors. Some restrictions are broadly-worded, designating funds to be used for financial aid, for example, while custom writing essay service others are very specific, such as funding for a scholarship for students from a particular area.

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Schools have some ability to modify restrictions when a restriction outlives its purpose. At case-study schools, funds specifically restricted for financial aid ranged from about 12 percent to nearly 70 percent of endowment assets in 2009. Officials noted that other funds may also be used for financial aid. Over the past 20 years, inflation- adjusted distributions from these schools have shown steady growth. United States Government Accountability Office Contents Letter Background Endowments Vary Greatly in Size what is the best paper writing service and Grew during the Past 20 Years despite Occasional Declines Distributions from Endowment Funds Are Typically Subject to Restrictions Colleges and Universities Establish Their Own Policies Governing Annual Endowment Distributions 1 2 6 13 16 Appendix I Objectives, Scope, and Methodology 21 Appendix II Berea College Case Study 26 Appendix III Harvard University Case Study 31 Appendix IV Howard University Case Study 35 Appendix V Smith College Case Study 39 Appendix VI St. Institutions of Higher Education by Total Endowment Assets, 2008 7 Figure 3: Number of U. Institutions of Higher Education by Endowment Assets per Student, 2008 8 Figure 4: Total Endowment Assets at U. Institutions of Higher Education, 1989 through 2008 10 Figure 5: Percent Change in Endowments at Eight Case-Study Institutions, 1989 what is the best paper writing service through 2009 11 Figure 6: Endowment Market Values in 2009 Dollars and Distribution Rates, 1990 through 2009 18 Figure 7: Percent Change in Endowment Distributions at Seven Case Study Institutions, 1990 through 2009 19 Figure 8: Berea College Endowment Market Value in 2009 Dollars, 1989 through 2009 28 Figure 9: Berea College Endowment Distributions in 2009 Dollars, 1990 through 2009 30 Figure 10: Harvard University Endowment Market Value in 2009 Dollars, 1989 through 2009 32 Figure 11: Harvard University Endowment Distributions in 2009 Dollars, 1990 through 2009 34 Figure 12: Howard University Endowment Market Value in 2009 Dollars, 1989 through 2008 37 Figure 13: Howard University Endowment Distributions in 2009 Dollars, 1998 through 2007 38 Figure 14: Smith College Endowment Market Value in 2009 Dollars, 1989 through 2009 41 Figure 15: Smith College Endowment Distributions in 2009 Dollars, 1990 through 2009 43 Figure 16: St. The published product may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety without further permission from GAO. However, because this work may contain copyrighted images or other material, permission from the copyright holder may be necessary if you wish to reproduce this material separately. Enzi Ranking Member Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions United States Senate The Honorable George Miller Chairman The Honorable John P. Kline Ranking Member Committee on Education and Labor House of Representatives U. In congressional hearings and in academic literature, some have argued that some college and university endowments have grown very large without a concurrent increase in the use of endowment proceeds to reduce the cost of attending those schools. Others have argued that it is the duty of institutions with endowments of any size to balance the needs of students today with the need to preserve endowments for students in the future, so schools should be prudent in making decisions about endowment distributions, even in years that endowment investments performed very well. The topic of college affordability continues to be an issue of great concern and many are concerned that increases in the cost of college may be discouraging large numbers of individuals, particularly minority and low income individuals, from pursuing higher education.

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