Three major disadvantages for the translated essay were highlighted by a considerable number of students. Thus, this result is consistent with the reported significant results in table 1. Table 4 demonstrates a number of interesting results about specific strategies students agreed to have used during the process of writing their translated essay. However, writing directly in English may not offer them this opportunity to think about a better way for expressing their ideas in L2. In line with this result, Stapa and Abdulmajid (2009) argued in favor of the use of the LI as they found that students who initially used their L1 to generate ideas demonstrated better performance when they composed their essay in L2. When comparing the strategies used by students for LI essay and L2 direct essay, it was found that there is no significant difference between the uses of this strategy in the two essays (see table 2).
Generally, this result clearly highlights the difficulty students find in using the right connectors. In their translated essay it was realized that many students avoided using any kind of connectors. This might be attributed to the nature of the translation they conducted in writing the translated essay. As a result of translating the essay sentence by sentence, students might ignore the issue of connecting those sentences and organizing them according to English language writing conventions. The less frequent change students conducted in the later study might be attributed to the similarities between English and French organizational systems. Recommendations The present study highlighted a number of important results regarding the advantages and disadvantages of writing directly in L2 and translated writing from LI to L2.
Those results helped in extracting the following instructional recommendations. Teachers should expose students directly to the norms of writing in L2 and provide them with enough and continuous opportunities to practice writing in different genres in L2. At early stages, teachers should explicitly highlight the differences thesis publishing between the norms of writing in L1 and L2 as writing in Arabic is to some extent different from writing in English. Students should always be encouraged to reflect on their thesis publishing writing experience in L2 and they should always be encouraged to use their first language writing experience when writing in L2. Finally, students should be helped to become aware of the strategies they use when writing in LI and they should be taught how to transfer and use those strategies when writing in L2. Two prompts were used for writing the required essays. Also a questionnaire was distributed after each essay to elicit the kinds of strategies students used in writing the different essays. The thesis publishing findings of the study demonstrate statistically significant differences between the direct and the translated essay. Interestingly, all the findings are in favor of the essay written directly in English. However, the results of the strategy questionnaire reveal no statistically significant differences between the direct and the LI compositions. This indicates that students may transfer LI writing strategies when writing in L2 and vice versa. The analysis of the qualitative data collected by the follow-up questions demonstrates positive attitudes toward the task written directly in English.
Most of the results extracted from the qualitative data are consistent with the results obtained from the quantitative data. While analyzing the data, certain important issues, which were not accounted for in the research design, emerged surprisingly, such as the issues of translation and L1 writing proficiency.
Moreover, research in the future may focus on comparing the writing strategies students claimed to have used in writing the different essays and the actual use of such strategies. Performance, Feedback, and C6LT COLLtCTtD 6SJXYJ ON L(XPs. NINC XND T6XCHINC Revision: Metacognitive 2015 CELT Vol. They were then asked to write their own essays and evaluate them using the same assessment criteria.
The efficacy of the project was evaluated based upon student feedback, both quantitative and qualitative, and an analysis of their marks.
The essay-writing project was informed by fundamental principles supported by research in teaching and learning: namely, that early intervention in first-year courses helps students improve their essay-writing skills, clear and transparent expectations are crucial for positive student perceptions of learning, carefully scaffolded assignments help students develop their writing skills over time, and increasing thefequency of writing opportunities and feedback leads to higher learning outcomes. Findings suggest that a metacognitive approach to essay writing can provide significant opportunities for students to improve their essay-writing skills. The essay-writing project has implications for those who plan, support, and deliver first-year university courses, particularly those courses involving academic writing assignments. E ssay writing is a skill that the majority of university students are expected to cultivate at some point in their undergraduate careers, whatever the major. Although the type of essay varies between disciplines (e. VIII There have been significant contributions to research on essay writing in the last two decades (e. Scholars from various disciplines have investigated topics as diverse as the discrepancies between instructor and student expectations for assessment, the different stylistic conventions of writing across disciplinary and institutional boundaries, student perceptions of the value of essay writing, problem- oriented collaborative writing projects in the humanities, the prevalence of plagiarism, the ethics and efficacy of third-party proof-reading, and the relative value of study skill manuals for improving writing skills and competencies. Although the essay occupies a central place in university assessment, a number thesis publishing of scholars have commented on the lack of attention devoted to essay writing in the scholarship of teaching and learning (e. McCune (2004) points to the lack of research between essay writing, student perceptions, and learning outcomes.
Knudson (2014) notes that few studies have investigated how students conceptualize the process of essay writing and how they develop competencies over time. Court, (2014) asserts that the link between assessment and writing skills has not been widely studied (p. Furthermore, the relationship between the coursework essay and undergraduate learning outcomes is a field that remains largely unexamined: this article seeks to address, in particular, the critical lacunae around metacognitive approaches to first-year undergraduate essay writing. Through a series of interrelated and scaffolded exercises, students evaluated undergraduate essays using a predetermined assessment process. They were then asked to write their own essays and evaluate them using the same assessment criteria.