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Do male and female Turkish EFL university students differ in terms of their perceived writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety? What is the correlation between writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety?

Do higher education students differ in terms of their perceived writing self-efficacy and writing self-efficacy based on their grade? All groups term papers writing service of students are exposed to the same teaching program. The first was Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI) which contains term papers writing service 22 items. It was developed by Cheng (2004) in order to measure the level anxiety of student writers experience when writing in English. SLWAI consists of three sub-dimensions: somatic anxiety (as reflected in negative feelings such as tension), cognitive anxiety (as reflected in negative expectations, preoccupation with performance), and avoidance behavior (as reflected in avoidance in writing). SLWAI was selected as a data collection tool on account of the fact that it has been proved as being highly reliable and valid by means of correlation and factor analysis (Cheng, 2004). The questionnaire has a Likert-type 5-choice response format: 1 (strongly disagree), 2 (disagree), 3 (undecided), 4 (agree), and 5 (strongly agree). The distribution of items across three subcategories is as follows: (1) cognitive anxiety (1,3,7,9,14,17,20,21), (2) somatic anxiety (2,6,8,11,13,15,19), and (3) avoidance behavior (4,5,10,12,16,18,22).

The questionnaire was administered in English because the subjects are English Language and Literature students.

Unclear points were explained during the administration process. The items of the scale were graded with the four-tier system Likert scale: (I) strongly disagree, (2) disagree, (3) undecided, (4) agree, and (5) strongly agree. The reliability and validity analyses were calculated by Yavuz-Erkan (2004). In order to identify the causes of writing anxiety, a 10-item questionnaire called Causes of Writing Anxiety Inventory (CWAI) was developed on the basis of possible causes of anxiety ranging from lack of proper practice to lack of sufficient grammar competence. Subsequently, in order to investigate whether writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety levels differ in terms of gender, a T-test was run. Finally, in order to find out the correlation between writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety, correlation analysis was carried out. Table 1 presents the descriptive statistics about writing self-efficacy.

Published by Sciedu Press 59 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN1927-6052 www. The table shows that the participants have a medium level of writing efficacy in terms of content, design, unity, and accuracy and they have a high level of writing self-efficacy in terms of punctuation. The second primary aim of the presents study was to measure the writing anxiety level of Turkish English Language and Literature Department students. In order to do this, the results of 172 participants were grouped as low, medium, and high. To do this, the maximum values were divided into three in order to find the cut-off points. The table also indicates that the participants have a medium level of cognitive anxiety (58. As for somatic anxiety, almost half of the participants have a moderate level of somatic anxiety (48. Finally, as we can understand from Table 2, Turkish English Language and Literature department students have a medium level of avoidance behavior.

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As we can understand from the results, the most serious causes of writing anxiety among English language and literature department students are time pressure, negative evaluation of the teacher, and lack of sufficient English writing practice.

Published by Sciedu Press 60 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN1927-6052 www. Descriptive statistics about the causes of writing anxiety Causes of Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory N Min. In order to determine whether there are differences between male and female students in terms of their perceived writing self-efficacy, a T-test was carried out. It is clearly seen that male students in the present study seem to have higher level of writing self-efficacy.

T-test results for writing self-efficacy in relation to gender Writing self-efficacy Gender N M F Sig. Female participants seem to suffer more from somatic anxiety. Published by Sciedu Press 61 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN1927-6052 www. In order to understand whether there are statistically significant differences between grade levels in terms of writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety, an ANOVA was conducted. Interestingly, third grade students suffer more from somatic anxiety compared to second and fourth grade students. This can be linked to the fact again that they have a research course and this may be the main cause of somatic anxiety. Published by Sciedu Press 62 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN1927-6052 www. ANOVA results for grade levels and writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety. The results indicate that there are no statistically significant differences between students from different grades in terms of writing self-efficacy. However, as that table indicates, the participants differ significantly in terms of writing anxiety. ANOVA results for grade levels and writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety Variables status N M F Sig. In order to measure the correlation between writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety, a correlation analysis was carried out. As can be seen from the table, there were high positive relationships Published by Sciedu Press 63 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN1927-6052 www. When it comes to the correlation between anxiety and term papers writing service the sub-dimensions of writing self-efficacy, we can see that there are negative correlations between writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety. The results clarify that there is a negative correlation between writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety. That is to say, as anxiety decreases writing self-efficacy increases. Discussion The primary aim of the present study was to measure the writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety levels of Turkish English Language and Literature department students.

As for writing self-efficacy, the present study found that the participants have a moderate level of efficacy in terms of content, design, unity, and accuracy sub-dimensions and they have a high level of writing self-efficacy in terms of punctuation sub-dimension.

Therefore, we can say that Turkish EFL students have a moderate level of writing self-efficacy. As for writing anxiety, the study found that term papers writing service the participants have a medium level of cognitive anxiety and somatic anxiety. Finally, Turkish English Language and Literature department students were found to have a considerably medium level of avoidance behavior.

The study also undertook to investigate the causes of writing anxiety.

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