Term papers help

But it was also seen as crucial to plan a curricular und teaching strategy which systematically fostered the growth of independent learning: From the first day of the first term students are encouraged to identify what they need to learn in order to solve and manage problems. The main thrust of this approach is centred, but by no means exclusively, on problem-based learning. Here the students are helped to ask themselves questions in a logical order, so that the resultant sequence of learning will lead to the answers that can be applied to the problem in hand. This approach is reflected in the way in which each first problem-solving group meeting is organized and the way in which the related learning material is planned. The materials are very specific during the early part of the undergraduate Course to enable students to become accustomed to the new way of Organizing their studies, and there is close monitoring of achievement and Itrong tutorial support. Often participants in our discussions had not had other opportunities of discussing their teaching with colleagues, and only in a very few cases had teachers discussed their intentions or methods with their students. More specifically, we have tried to demonstrate how academics can ally their own experiences and perspectives to an understanding of those of their students, and thus learn from an experiential conception of teaching. We have indicated directions which fresh initiatives might follow, but without prescribing fixed routes forward. Since every teaching-learning situation is in its own way unique, academics must be their own helmsmen, devising courses of action tailored to their discipline, their local circumstances and their own particular purposes. Reflective teaching and the quality of learning go hand in hand. Acknowledgements The author would like to express his sincere thanks to the Swedish I Institute and to the Department of Education, University of Gothenburg.

Their generous support made the preparation of this chapter possible. In particular, we identified varying perspectives held by lecturers, psychologists, and educational researchers and pointed the way towards an alternative perspective — that term papers help of the student. Each of the succeeding chapters has introduced evidence on how students themselves have experienced different aspects of learning and studying. In the process the reader has been introduced to a potentially confusing range of terms introduced in the various studies, together with descriptions of variations in qualitative methodologies. In this final chapter we aim to provide a conceptual and methodological integration of the work presented in earlier chapters in a way which will point up the defining characteristics of this perspective on learning, and of the research methodology that has been used to explore it. In the previous chapter the research findings were used to challenge lecturers to reconceptualize the role of teaching in the teaching-learning process. Our ideas about study skills also demanded a radical reappraisal.

We were calling for a fundamental shift in emphasis away from the more mechanical aspects of study skills. Students can be helped to take more conscious control of their study activities, to be more aware of their own purposes in studying, and to relate these to the explicit and implicit demands of the courses they were taking. The results of our research introduce a way of thinking about teaching and learning which provides guidelines for lecturers apd Itudents. It does not produce detailed prescriptions because we have ihown how learning and teaching need to be considered in relation to both content and context. Teachers or students have, instead, to reflect On their own individual needs and circumstances in the light of our findings — and then decide what action is implied.

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This reinterpretation of the research findings to fit individual require- ments carries with it an added necessity to reach a full understanding of the main concepts and categories used to describe student learning. We have therefore tried in this chapter to bring together the previous attempts to ahOW the relationships between these concepts. Thus time sequence, and previous) research interests, affect the findings obtained. The) research group in Gothenburg has always put great emphasis on analysing) study processes in relation to the content of what is being learned. Each of these four research groups has developed j, its own distinctive interpretative framework in investigating different aspects of term papers help student learning. This idea was rooted in the earlier research on motivation and study methods. Out of the Surrey research came the distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic relevance or interest, in relation to the term papers help experience first of lectures and then of the course as a whole. The shared experiences of studying discussed in the workshops provided further evidence of the influence of purpose on approaches to studying, and stimulated interest in ways of integrating the various categories used to describe student learning. As a result, a longitudinal study was carried out with a group of OU students which provided evidence of the inter-relationships between orientation, concep- tion, approach and outcome in terms of a holistic view of the learner — and of changing conceptions, a developmental perspective. Thus the ideas from Gothenburg were nourished in different research climates in Lancaster, Surrey and the Open University, producing different fruits. And yet each group, and to some extent each individual within each group, retained a distinctive interpretation of the salience of the different aspects of student learning identified. These differences come through very clearly in the earlier chapters, and yet throughout the book there is a shared understanding of how to describe student learning. The fact that there is such substantial agreement may not be made explicit enough in some of the chapters, and so needs to be stressed here. The Original Learning Experiment As we have said, the four research groups contributing to this book were all Influenced by the original experiment conducted in Gothenburg. That 214 THE EXPERIENCE OF LEARNING experiment broke the dominant tradition in research on learning in several important ways. The importance of the new methodology will be considered later. Here we concentrate on the major constructs introduced to describe student learning, beginning with the ideas of outcome and approach. The first experiment in Gothenburg showed that students had reached qualitatively different levels of understanding. The fundamental distinction in the outcomes of learning initially contrasted attempts to reproduce verbatim parts of the text, with the variety of reinterpretations emerging from a deeper engagement with its underlying meaning. That variety of reinter- pretations, described by Lars-Owe Dahlgren in Chapter 2, drew attention to the idiosyncratic nature of human understanding, and laid the foundation for the different conceptualization of learning which has become the hallmark of subsequent work by the Gothenburg group. Dahlgren described studies in which the outcomes of learning could be described as qualitatively different levels of response to the article that had been read.

It now seems clear that we can expect to see in student learning an outcome space which may contain.

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