Review of essay writing services
And we can make sensible problem- solving strategies that successful writers use more available to our students. The larger implications of making this process teachable go beyond instructional methods. They in- volve a new way to see and diagnose problems that gets at fundamental difficultiesstudentsfacein their thinking and writing processes.
And they show how we can capitalize on the real abilities of students, including those at risk in the schools, by giving them more and earlier experiences of being self-aware problem solv- ers, effective communicators, and successful learners. To help achieve this objective, this group has formed an educational experiment in making thinking visible throughout the greater-Pittsburgh area. The focus is on writing as the area of instruction and a new technique called collaborative planning, in which stu- dents use and reflect upon their own problem-solving strategies in planning to write.
As students use col- laborative planning, we demonstrate both their un- review of essay writing services tapped potential and the strategies of literacy they need to learn. At the same time, we are helping establish a cooperative structure that supports this change. This structure, whi links teachers and community leaders as well as schools, colleges, and community centers, will help to create a climate of opinion in Pittsburgh area schools in which writing is treated as thinking, enabling teachersand students toapproachliterateacts as problem-solving. We hope thiseducational structure will exrand into an informed network of teacher- researchers throughout the area.
This project has its roots in inquiry, research, and teaching that started at dmegie Mellon and has come to involve teachers throughout Pittsburgh. In the last ten years of research in education, the "cognitive revolution" has given us a new picture of how humans behave— of how experts solve problems, of how nov- ices struggle, and of how students leam. Since much of the pioneering work in understanding writing as a thinking process has been done at Carnegie Mellon, this is a good time and place to take the process a step further. This research has provided some theoretical models and detailed observations of the strategies and mental processes that highly skilled writers use when they face new and difficult writing tasks. We believe these models provide invaluable help for guiding less experienced writers.
However, we hope to discover a good deal more about the different ways teachers and students can apply this knowledge in the classroom. Even though the Pittsburgh area has some of the best schools in the country, helping every student become fully literate is difficult. Many students who could become literate membersof their community are lost, and many shidents who could become powerful, competent communicators never become effective writers. One way to give students the power of literacy is to explore review of essay writing services the roots of the problem— treating writing as a dynamic thinking process and teaching the prob- lem-solving strategies that give writers control over that process.
The barrier we face in teaching literacy is the barrier we hit in teaching all basic skills: students need to have a sense of themselves as problem solvers.
They need to see and understand what it means to be learners, to be communicators, to be writers, and to be thinkers. By taking ad vantage of the recent research on writing as a thinking process, we believe we can help students leam to better control their own thinking processes so that they can achieve greater success in school and in their community. Given all the constraints under which vmting, like other basic skills, is currently taught, it makes sense to consider dramafac and workable innovations. Such innovations should question some traditional as- sumptions (e. One innovative method for making the thinking process more visible is coUaboraitive planning. This technique allows students to work together while confronting real problems of communication. They can think through those problems and explore their own goals and strategies as writers— and in that process demon- strate what it means to have a reflective control of their own writing and problem-solving processes.
The educational innovation on which the project is based is collaborative planning — a process in which students carry out their problem solving and planning aloud with the help of a collaborator. As collaborators, students help each other by modeling the planning process. Supporters also encourage writers to clarify their plans, sometimes contribute to plans, and occa- sionally challenge plans. Collaborative planning is based upon six years of basic research in planning by Linda Flower and John R. Recent research shows that inexperienced writers who plan at all concentrate their thinking on the academic essay writing services topic— thinking of things to say. However, to be strategic thinkers and effective com- municators, they need to consider the whole problem in a writing task— to think about their purpose and audience, review of essay writing services to anticipate how other people respond, and to use their knowledge of textual conventions to achieve a purpose. Therefore, review of essay writing services achieving the first objective includes prompting and documenting visible changes in the kind and quality of planning that students are able to do.
Unlike most educational projects, we have the enormous advantage of looking directly at thinking and intervening directly in that process.
Schools can improve the chances for such transfer by leaching strategies in a variety of contexts.
Helping students themselves become more aware of their own strategies is a second way. A third objective is to understand how collaborative planning can be adapted to meet the needs of developing writers in a variety of review of essay writing services high school college, and community contexts. Meeting this objective requires an in-depth understanding of these diverse social and educational contexts. Thus, a major goal of this project is to under- stand how collaborative planning can be adapted to help student writers develop both more sophisticated writing strategies and an increased sense of awareness about their own thinking processes.