Research papers custom

Skill in studying involves the display of understanding of a given material through special skills of performance in examinations. However, examinations are normally very restricted in their form, content and duration. This means that very little of what has been understood by the student can be demonstrated in the examination, and selection is therefore necessary. This creates several problems, especially in higher education where the volume of material which students are expected to study is substantial. Since study success rather than understanding is what matters, and since this is defined as success in examinations, it seems unnecessary to understand more than what is demanded in the examinations. It is thus in the interests of students to be selective and to focus their studying in accordance with the examination.

SKILL IN LEARNING 69 In being selective, students can, broadly speaking, opt for one of two possibilities. One is to tackle the problem by selecting specific parts of the course material which they consider important and which, by themselves, are not dauntingly large. The other possibility is not to select from the material, but to select within it. The students place much more emphasis on overall structures and meanings than on specific details.

They see the examination as requiring them to remember and understand details only insofar as these details exemplify or corroborate broader structures and meanings.

The first of these possibilities constitutes a surface or atomistic approach and the second a deep or holistic approach.

The problem for the students is that the adoption of a deep or holistic approach is not explicitly required of them.

What approach the students adopt is therefore likely to depend upon their research papers custom previous knowledge and experience. If they are accustomed to taking a deep or holistic approach, they are likely to be able to cope with much larger units of course material. If they are not used to treating course material in this way, their experience of larger units of course material may become steadily less rewarding to them personally and less rewarding in terms of their examination performance. The reason for this may have less to do with the content of the examinations as such than with the demands of large units of course material. As we noted earlier, it is easier to remember something that is part of a larger organized whole.

It is also more efficient and more pleasurable to aim at and achieve deep and holistic understanding. The cumulative nature and increased complexity of course content presents considerable problems, however, if the approach adopted is a surface or atomistic one. Instead of the pleasure of understanding, there is the hard work of memorizing increasingly more complex and steadily larger units of material. If students adopting such an approach are fortunate as well as industrious, they will manage to pass their examinations by dint of extensive memorization while also gradually modifying their approach and learning what is required for understanding. But what often happens is that the students cope initially, when the amount of material to be digested is relatively small, but find that as the volume of material increases, studying becomes increasingly more arduous, tedious and likely to result in failure (Svensson, 1976, 1977).

Academic success may be most easily achieved by students whose previous knowledge and experience has already equipped them to cope with the learning of complex organized wholes. These students will select within the material as described above. However, to those students who select from the material there is very little feedback telling them that this approach will be detrimental in the long run.

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The understanding displayed and accepted in examination performance to a considerable extent represents short-term memorization. Relatively soon after the examinations are over, most of it will have been forgotten. However, integration is not an inevitable part of skill in studying. The student has to balance two competing requirements: the need help to write an essay to deal with a large body of material in a short time, and what is required in the painstaking construction of integrated wholes. Achieving the latter demands insight, confidence and even independence and stubbornness on the part of the student. This is extremely unlikely to be found among students relying on an atomistic approach and already pressed by the increasing risk of failure. On the other hand, its achievement may in some extreme cases lead to failure if, in allocating study time, the student places integrated understanding above the requirements to learn a specified range of materials, as research papers custom demanded by the examination system. Here, the paradox is that although in most cases academic failure results from problems with personal statement essay help understanding, in some cases it may result from a devotion to thorough understanding. To reiterate our main concluding point, skill in studying is not equivalent to skill in learning. Moreover, the benefits of skilled learning go beyond a better knowledge of need help with research paper a specific body of subject-matter and its long-term retention and application to new material. Ultimately, improvements in skill in learning which stem from any particular course unit are not specific to the content of that unit. They are improvements in the skill of understanding and of learning to learn. The student becomes more skilled at extending his or her understanding through an exploration of new and more complex material. Chapter Five Learning from Reading ROGER sAljo University of Linkoping Introduction The written word is a powerful strategy for communicating. As Olsen (1977) has observed, the introduction of writing systems has had important consequences historically, both for cultural practices in Western society and for the cognitive processes of individuals.

In its capacity to store segments of the collective experiences of a people or a culture, the written word puts a premium on a different set of cognitive activities than does the spoken word.

Thus as a cultural and technological device the written word has had significant consequences for the development of scientific, abstract thinking, research papers custom for the mode in which the knowledge which has been accumulated is passed on from one generation to another, and, consequently, for the development of society at large. A basic notion underlying the research reported in this book is that our capacity to understand and master learning phenomena is intimately linked to our ability to talk about this only vaguely defined concept in a precise way. This excursion into the fascinating topic of how people make sense of what they read is therefore to be conceived not merely as an inquiry into human capacity for learning in a narrow sense, but also into fundamental processes of knowledge-generation and mediation in a complex and dynamic cultural and scientific milieu Where a multitude of — sometimes competing — conceptions of reality (Marton, 1981) can be found.

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