Research papers custom
Skill in studying involves the display of understanding of a given material through special skills of performance in examinations. However, examinations are normally very restricted in their form, content and duration. This means that very little of what has been understood by the student can be demonstrated in the examination, and selection is therefore necessary. This creates several problems, especially in higher education where the volume of material which students are expected to study is substantial. Since study success rather than understanding is what matters, and since this is defined as success in examinations, it seems unnecessary to understand more than what is demanded in the examinations. It is thus in the interests of students to be selective and to focus their studying in accordance with the examination.
SKILL IN LEARNING 69 In being selective, students can, broadly speaking, opt for one of two possibilities. One is to tackle the problem by selecting specific parts of the course material which they consider important and which, by themselves, are not dauntingly large. The other possibility is not to select from the material, but to select within it. The students place much more emphasis on overall structures and meanings than on specific details.
They see the examination as requiring them to remember and understand details only insofar as these details exemplify or corroborate broader structures and meanings.
The first of these possibilities constitutes a surface or atomistic approach and the second a deep or holistic approach.
The problem for the students is that the adoption of a deep or holistic approach is not explicitly required of them.
What approach the students adopt is therefore likely to depend upon their research papers custom previous knowledge and experience. If they are accustomed to taking a deep or holistic approach, they are likely to be able to cope with much larger units of course material. If they are not used to treating course material in this way, their experience of larger units of course material may become steadily less rewarding to them personally and less rewarding in terms of their examination performance. The reason for this may have less to do with the content of the examinations as such than with the demands of large units of course material. As we noted earlier, it is easier to remember something that is part of a larger organized whole.
It is also more efficient and more pleasurable to aim at and achieve deep and holistic understanding. The cumulative nature and increased complexity of course content presents considerable problems, however, if the approach adopted is a surface or atomistic one. Instead of the pleasure of understanding, there is the hard work of memorizing increasingly more complex and steadily larger units of material. If students adopting such an approach are fortunate as well as industrious, they will manage to pass their examinations by dint of extensive memorization while also gradually modifying their approach and learning what is required for understanding. But what often happens is that the students cope initially, when the amount of material to be digested is relatively small, but find that as the volume of material increases, studying becomes increasingly more arduous, tedious and likely to result in failure (Svensson, 1976, 1977).
Academic success may be most easily achieved by students whose previous knowledge and experience has already equipped them to cope with the learning of complex organized wholes. These students will select within the material as described above. However, to those students who select from the material there is very little feedback telling them that this approach will be detrimental in the long run.
In its capacity to store segments of the collective experiences of a people or a culture, the written word puts a premium on a different set of cognitive activities than does the spoken word.
Thus as a cultural and technological device the written word has had significant consequences for the development of scientific, abstract thinking, research papers custom for the mode in which the knowledge which has been accumulated is passed on from one generation to another, and, consequently, for the development of society at large. A basic notion underlying the research reported in this book is that our capacity to understand and master learning phenomena is intimately linked to our ability to talk about this only vaguely defined concept in a precise way. This excursion into the fascinating topic of how people make sense of what they read is therefore to be conceived not merely as an inquiry into human capacity for learning in a narrow sense, but also into fundamental processes of knowledge-generation and mediation in a complex and dynamic cultural and scientific milieu Where a multitude of — sometimes competing — conceptions of reality (Marton, 1981) can be found.