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Furthermore, analysis of the EPD and comparative sample suggested that this could be a factor in the greater likelihood of EPD teachers remaining in the profession. Thus, the very existence of a dedicated, funded scheme specifically for the professional development of second and third year teachers was, in itself, crucial to the outcomes derived from EPD. To conclude, this evaluation has chronicled the success of the EPD pilot scheme. Given its discontinuation, it is important to consider what lessons might be carried forward to inform subsequent policies and practices aimed at supporting teachers at the outset of their careers and - given the strength of the outcomes to emerge from the pilot - perhaps all teachers.
Based on the experience of the EPD scheme, amongst the key factors associated with effective professional development were: autonomy for teachers, mentoring, a school ethos that embraces the professional development of its staff and an LEA role in support and promotion. In the absence of the scheme itself, these are the attributes that would perhaps benefit from particular attention so the philosophy of EPD - autonomy, mentoring, school and LEA support - can be used to nurture and develop new cohorts of teachers entering the profession. The research was conducted by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) on the behalf of the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) and the General Teaching Council for England (GTC). Building on the results of two interim, unpublished reports produced at the end of the first and second years of the pilot (Moor et al. The pilot programme to make available EPD to teachers in the second and third years of their careers was launched by the DfES in September 2001.
The pilots were established in 12 local education authorities (LEAs) and ran for three years until July 2004. The participating authorities were: Birmingham, Brighton and Hove, Cornwall, Croydon, Cumbria, Hammersmith and Fulham, Hampshire, Kensington and Chelsea, Lewisham, Newham, Stoke-on-Trent and Wakefield. The LEA had a central role in the conceptualisation and administration of the EPD pilot within their authority. Therefore, the implementation of the scheme differed somewhat across the 12 areas. Overall, however, the EPD experience was chiefly characterised by two elements. Firstly, there was an underlying principle that second and third year teachers would - with support from their school - have involvement in decisions regarding the use of EPD funding to address their own professional development needs.
Secondly, there was a commitment to mentoring: in 11 of the 12 LEAs, it was intended that EPD teachers would have a mentor and in the remaining LEA, mentoring was optional. In particular, there was increasing concern regarding the recruitment and retention of teachers where evidence suggested that new entrants to the profession were an especially write my paper apa format vulnerable group. Indeed, their report highlighted that over a quarter (28 per cent) of teachers leaving full-time permanent contracts had been teaching for five years or fewer. Regional variation was also apparent, such that teachers in London and the south east were more likely to leave the profession than those in the midlands and the north. However, following this statutory support during the induction year, and prior to middle-management leadership and headship training, there was concern that targeted support for teachers during the initial years of their professional life research paper to buy custom english essays may be more limited. Professional Bursaries and Sabbaticals for experienced teachers working in challenging schools).
Furthermore, 2 PART ONE OFSTED (2003) highlighted the importance of early professional development. In a study of the quality and effectiveness of the professional development activities undertaken by teachers in their second and third years of teaching (taken from LEAs not participating essay help live chat in the EPD pilot scheme), OFSTED concluded that, in around half of the schools, the activities had directly strengthened commitment to a career in teaching. It was also noted that, where professional development was effective, there was evidence that teachers were making a contribution to the development of their colleagues and, to a lesser extent, the whole school. Teachers in this study also articulated that professional development led to improved standards of teaching and pupil learning. Furthermore, following a review of the literature on professional development in 2003, Cordingly et al. There has been a shift of emphasis at a national level away from the provision of ring-fenced grants and centrally-run programmes to targeted groups of teachers i.
Professional Bursaries, Best Practice Research Scholarships and Sabbaticals, to the integration of funding within the main local government funding system (DfES, 2004a). As such, despite positive evaluation findings (Moor et al. To date, this commitment at a national level has been reflected in the development of an online resource base providing guidance and good practice for CPD and the Professional Bursaries, Best Practice Research Scholarships and the Sabbaticals scheme have also been discontinued. In addition, there is a focus on CPD within the Primary National Strategy and the Key Stage 3 National Strategy.
The Primary National Strategy, to raise the quality of teaching and learning research paper to buy and standards of achievement, outlines a number of characteristics of effective professional development and considers the evidence for these (DfES, 2004d). In particular, it stresses the impact of ah school staff engaging in collaborative professional enquiry and the role of the leadership team in supporting this. Further, it sets out that engaging staff as learners in collaborative enquiry can be a powerful factor in school improvement and in raising standards. Moreover, it promotes professional development through active enquiry via networking and collaborative working.
The decision to discontinue the EPD scheme after the three years of the pilot was made at the end of its second year. Following this, the purpose of the research altered slightly for the third year to focus more on drawing out the lessons of the EPD experience in order to contribute to thinking on professional development in the wider context. Data collection took place in the summer terms of 2002, 2003 and 2004. This allowed participants in the research to reflect upon their experience of EPD across the full academic year (for those from the EPD pilot areas) or any professional development received during that school year (for those in the comparative non-EPD sample).
Further details of each phase of data collection are presented below. To this end, in the first year of the pilot, three schools from each of the 12 LEAs were selected to form a case-study sample of 36 schools. In choosing the case-study sample, the criteria for selection was research paper to buy to ensure that the case studies were illustrative of the characteristics of the schools participating in the EPD scheme overall, in terms of: type of management (community, voluntary aided, etc. Visits were made to the 36 selected schools in the first year of the pilot.