Research paper introduction help
The similarities and differences between languages have an important place in language transfer. Although the transfer effects of two languages which have similarities can be seen easily, it does not mean that there is no transfer between languages which have less common features. Because research paper introduction help of varied strengths and weaknesses in LI and L2, the transfer may produce varying results for different groups of language learners.
If vocabulary and language skills are developed in LI, it creates a leading high competence in L2. On the contrary, before sufficient proficiency in LI vocabulary and language skills, LI may not influence L2 acquisition in a positive way. In this case it can be said that low levels of LI vocabulary and language skills have a limited effect on the development of L2. In literature, there are many researches on LI four skills and their effects on L2 acquisition. Cummins (1984) explains that students who begin school with higher LI skills are hypothesized to acquire L2 more easily. Urdenata and Lorenzo (2011) in their study, examine the influence LI written structure has on L2 written structure when students are asked to carry out assignments in the L2. Twenty four students of the first semester at UNICA University were asked to write some papers in English during the semester. The results of this study indicate that the influence of LI (Spanish) can definitely hinder the writing processes in L2.
All of these studies englighten the influence of native language and transfer effects in languages.
Some researches show that multi-lingual people differ from their monolingual peers in diverse ways (Cook, 2003). Cook (1994) explains that multi-competence presents a view of second language acquisition (SLA) based on the second language user as a whole person rather than on the monolingual native speaker.
Multi-competence opened up reverse transfer from the second language to the first and other forms of transfer (Jarvis and Pavlenko, 2009).
Some researches have proved that knowing a second language affects the first language in different ways.
Kesckes and Papp (2000) state that knowing another language compliments first language. They explain that Hungarian children who know English use more complex sentences in their first language than those who do not. Cook (2003) found that the cues to the processing of LI word order change when another Gonca 989 language is known.
Pavlenko (2003) analyzed that Russians who knew English interpret film sequences differently from monolinguals. The researches show that the effects of the L2 on the LI are not limited with grammar or vocabulary.
According to some researches the intonation, pronunciation, lexicon, syntax, pragmatics can be changed in LI via L2. Mennen (2004) in his study, explained that LI intonation is influenced by the L2. In recent researches, different areas have been studied related with language transfer. Montrul (2010) in the study searches if LI influence in adult L2 learners is similar to L2 influence in the LI of early bilinguals. Results of the study shows that there are advantages for the heritage speakers in some areas, but similar effects of transfer fom English in the two groups. These findings reflect the vulnerability of certain linguistic interfaces in language and for theories that stress the role of age in L2 acquisition and permanent transfer effects. In another study, Siu and Ho (2015) examine the roles of different dimensions of syntactic skills in predicting reading comprehension within and across two languages (Chinese and English) with contrasting structural properties.
These skills appear in various fields such as grammar, vocabulary, pragmatics, syntax, semantics, morphology, functions, comprehensions, pronounciation, etc. Due to the complexity of the language, it can be said that transfer can ocur in different directions and fields. As it is seen in the examples, not only the LI affects L2 skills but also the people who know research paper introduction help a second language have transfer effects in LI. The L2 user discovers the differences in two languages so in the first language more complex linguistic, syntax and semantic organisation can occur. The transfer also takes place in pronunciation, vocabulary and language skills. Writing skills Writing is not an ability we acquire naturally, even in our first language has to be taught. Many things such as spelling, grammar, context, discourse, cognitive and lexical knowledge affect the development of writing skills.
When children learn to write in LI, they acquire basic writing research paper introduction help skills, such as morphological awareness, letter recognition, word recognition. Also, they reach the ability to interpret and create meaning. However, L2 learners are engaged in an experience which is very different from LI writing skills.
Firstly, one of the most important differences is that these learners have previous LI knowledge and LI writing abilities and skills. The learners who start L2 acquisition, are face with differences in the two languages. Although L2 learners have their LI writing skills from their childhood, they come across with new writing process in L2. Without question, an educated person should be able to write in a clear, coherent and comprehensible manner. The point is that language students often have very poorly developed writing skills even in their native language. Most of the students produce unclear and incoherent writings including misspellings, grammar mistakes and insufficient vocabulary usage. Composing written texts is arguably the most cognitively taxing of language production tasks requiring the integration of multiple processing demands across lower order (for example, handwriting and spelling) and higher order (for example, ideas generation and organization) skills (Bourdin and Fayol, 1994). If L2 learners are not taught how to write in the new language, their writing skills are likely to get left behind.
It is clear that writing aids language development at all levels in grammar, vocabulary, phonology and discourse. Writing provides the learners to engage with the language at a deeper level of processing. Teaching writing enable learners to have a better knowledge and awareness of the new language they use.
When they write, they have time to think about the language. Writing enforces listening and speaking, and commonly, students feel more confident when they are dealing with the written language.
In addition to this, the writing process gives the students the opportunity to improve their writing through systematic self-correction (Franco, 1996). Teaching writing is not just about grammar, spelling, or the mechanics of the alphabet. Learners also need to be aware of and use some criteria such as generating ideas, focusing ideas, organising ideas, having cohesion and comprehension, expressing unique ideas in a proper way.
Some of them are entirely focused on the language itself, some on communication, and others on both the forms and message.