Research essay help
NFB, 150 Kent Street, Suite 642, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0M9, 1989. A teacher resource handbook and two videocassettes with 20 titles grouped as follows: Advertising and Consumerism, Images custom coursework of Women, Cultural Identity and Sovereignty, Power, Politics and Ideology. CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENTS: EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL SAFETY In keeping with the wide range of physical, social and emotional development among adolescents, English Language Arts activities must be carefully planned with physical and emotional safety in mind.
Teachers may be held liable for negligence of safety policy, regulations and practices.
Teacher sensitivity must be particularly ucute early in the year when students may be more unsure of themselves, their teacher and peers. DISCLOSURES Students may disclose elements of their personal lives that appear to put them and the teacher in jeopardy. LEGAL OBLIGATIONS Teachers must understand legal obligations in order to respond appropriately to these situations. Physical safety is not just a series of precautions to take at the first of the year, or a series of rules to post in the work area. Safety is j state of mind, something that is learned and never forgotten. Those people who are careful and always "think safe" will rarely injure themselves while they work. Good safety habits need to be learned early, reinforced often and remembered always. Teachers are encouraged to determine the current performance level of each student and organize for instruction accordingly. Various diagnostic programs, such as Diagnostic Learning and Communication Processes Program (1990) are available through Alberta Education, Learning Resources Distributing Centre (LRDC).
Students may experience difficulty in monitoring and regulating their learning behaviours, and require a great deal of external feedback as to their progress. While useful in communicating student progress to parents, the interview is also valuable in identifying individual needs that may be met through program planning and delivery. Teachers are encouraged to review Chapter IV "Evaluating Senior High Language Arts" (pp. EVALUATING SKILLS Students use many different skills every day in various situations. The teacher has numerous opportunities for evaluation by observing students using skills in a variety of activities, including researching, writing, working in groups and using inquiry strategies as well as informal testing situations. An effective method of evaluating skill development is to place the student in a situation that requires the use of a skill, and then to evaluate his or her performance. Direct observation of student behaviour and evaluation of oral and written responses to questions are two main approaches to evaluating attitudes.
Information about attitudes can be collected by using an attitude scale that contains a series of positive or negative statements about a topic or issue.
Observing student behaviour in a variety of situations, such as informal discussion and student self-evaluation may be used to appraise student attitudes. Record keeping heips teachers to compare attitudes held by students at the beginning and at the end of the unit or year. Further, to avoid misunderstandings, teachers are encouraged to present data on attitude development during student-teacher or student- parent-teacher conferences.
STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE EVALUATION Evaluation is a fact of daily life and a necessary part of monitoring programs and student progress. The strategies provided here are intended to serve as guidelines to the teacher research essay help research essay help in developing a system of evaluation that will improve both student learning and the quality of the English language arts program. Provide students with a variety of informal situations whereby they can demonstrate their understanding and application of concepts, skills and attitudes. These techniques will encourage students to be less dependent on external rewards and more responsible for their own learning. Some examples might include: "You did a good job of (be specific) "What steps did you find most difficult? Students often do not do their best research essay help undertime pressure. Teachers are encouraged to evaluate student progress relative to prescribed concepts, skills and attitudes throughout the year, using a variety of instruments and techniques. The following briefly describes evaluation methods. INSTRUMENTS AND TECHNIQUES COMMENTS OR DESCRIPTIONS ANECDOTAL RECORDS A continuous log or diary of student progress in written form. As a detailed record of specific observations, anecdotal records provide useful data for analysis and interpretation. Checklists may be useful for peer, teacher and self-evaluation and for student organization. MEDIA Teachers may tape-record tests to evaluate student listening skills and knowledge. Students may use tape-recordings to respond in a testing situation. Student performance may be videotaped for evaluation purposes. OBSERVATIONS Observing student behaviour in order to record performance on a checklist or to record data for an anecdotal report is a useful evaluation technique.
The focus is usually an individual student or a select number of students undertaking an activity over a given time frame. Observation can include student responses to questions, use of time and materials and participation in discussions and group activities.
Self-evaluation can be used in relation to activities and term papers help assignments as well as group work.
There should be follow-up to self-evaluation such as a conference with the teacher.
SPECIFIC ASSIGNMENTS Group activities, such as role playing, simulation games and panel discussions. Speaking activities, such as oral presentations, interviews and debates.
Written assignments, such as paragraphs, reports and position papers. The choices provided to the stem of the question are scaled in terms of degree of favourableness or acceptability. Examples of useful inventory choices include: The Likert Scale - a 5-point kev which may bp uspH in connection with any attitude statement. Examples of the key are: strongly approve, approve, undecided, disapprove, and strongly disapprove. A summed score may be established by weighting the responses to each statement from 5 for strongly approve to 1 for strongly disapprove. Rank Order -a qrouo of three or research essay help more itprm k presented whirh the student arranges in order of preference. This type of item is a cross between matching and key-list questions. TESTS Objective tests - matching, fill-in-the-blank.