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Moreover, the ability to integrate academic and career-related learning is influenced by a lack of time for teachers to develop curriculum and to meet and plan together across departments. ERIC Ns for LPs for this table are based only on those LPs that chose one of the 4 possible answers in the key.
Rather than asking administrators to report if their schools provided curriculum units about one or more industries or occupations, they were asked if material related to specific career areas or occupational fields was integrated. While it is impossible to estimate , the number of teachers who integrated curricula, or the number of students affected, it is clear that integration at some level occurred in a substantial number of high schools in 2000-2001. It is a dynamic process that requires constant communication and evaluation and has implications for curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional development. When applying this definition to case study data, is appears that curriculum integration is not systemic in any of the 13 case study LPs. Teachers in all 13 LPs reported that lack of time to develop curricula that integrates academic and career information, as well as the need to focus on external accountability requirements such as SAT-9 tests, were the major barriers to systemic integration.
There is some evidence, however, that a more systemic approach to curriculum integration is beginning to take hold in pockets of some LPs, specifically in LEED-Sacramento and the San Francisco School-to-Career Partnership.
North Central Regional Educational Laboratory Website, 2002. In addition, several high schools in this LP report that they plan to implement block scheduling to support the efforts of their smaller learning communities to include a more career- focus curricula. There is Little Evidence of a Relationship Between Curriculum Integration and School Characteristics Few consistent patterns regarding curriculum integration by school characteristics were observed across LPs. Rather, each LP found its own unique variations among schools surveyed. Despite the lack of consistent patterns, however, some LPs report the differences described below.
New Graduation Requirements, Standards, and Opportunities for Certification i As a school reform strategy, STC calls for students to meet higher levels of achievement and skills. This entails establishing order custom papers rigorous academic and workplace readiness standards and providing opportunities for students- to be recognized for attaining important skills. A major means for motivating students to attain important skills is through awarding industry-recognized certificates.
In fact, professional essay writers for hire STWOA calls specifically for WBL opportunities and standards-based assessment that lead to these skill certificates for high school students who master important industry and related academic skills. Another way for schools and districts to promote and recognize higher levels of student achievement is to establish new high school graduation requirements that reflect higher expectations. This section examines how STC has influenced the adoption and sat essay writing help implementation of high school graduation requirements, rigorous standards, and opportunities for professional essay writers for hire certification.
For example, the most frequently cited change in high school graduation requirements across LPs is an increase in required units, consistent with eligibility requirements for admission into the University of California system. East Bay Learns, for example, has 7 high schools that require service-learning and senior projects in order to graduate. In fact, one local district in the UNITE-LA partnership is implementing a Postsecondary Commitment Program where students must be accepted to a postsecohdary institution in order to graduate.
Among the more experienced teachers in higher intensity STC schools, STC is viewed as a strategy for teaching and reinforcing academic standards because STC increases student awareness that their future career and education goals depend on their mastery of academic content. Moreover, the statewide phenomenon of strengthening academic standards is thought to be primarily a response to increased high- stakes testing and accountability requirements, and is only secondarily influenced by other factors, including STC. However, the percentage of high schools that professional essay writers for hire offer certification in these 10 LPs is typically low to moderate. Among the LPs reporting on opportunities for students to earn skill certificates, 5 reported the number of students that were actually awarded such certificates in school year 2000- 2001. The nature and professional essay writers for hire requirements for certification seem to vary across schools and LPs. Most LPs did not report on the career areas in which skill certificates were awarded, although the few that did mentioned computer-related skills certificates (e. Some LPs view skill certification as primarily an ROP fimction, not directly related to STC, while others award certificates for academy and pathway completion. LEED and Partnership for Tomorrow developed certification programs at the LP level. The program consists of assessment batteries, including portfolio assessments in reading, math, critical thinking, problem solying, and applied performance for different career areas. Although it is not entirely clear how widely supported these certifications are by teachers and administrators, their availability in high schools is already high and appears to be growing. Partnership for Tomorrow created the Hire Me First Employability Skills Certification Program that features SCANS and Total Quality Management and requires service- learning and mock interviews. The district plans to make Hire Me First a local graduation requirement effective in 2003. There are several reasons why these connections are so critical. Schools count on businesses and labor organizations to provide WBL opportunities for students, give input into curriculum that meaningfully integrates industry-valued and academic skills, and generally help schools and teachers better understand the future educational and career demands for which students are preparing.
A strong connection between secondary and postsecondary education is just as crucial to a successful STC strategy.
In California, there is substantial emphasis on STC as a strategy for preparing students for postsecondary education. Done effectively, STC can help some students better learn the academic course content they need to prepare for successful postsecondary entry. In particular, STC programs often attempt to introduce integrated curriculum that provides meaningful context and reinforcement of academic learning through hands-on applications. In ERIC 57 turn, postsecondary institutions should benefit as well because fewer students who enter their systems should need remedial courses. A stronger secondary-postsecondary education connection will also provide students with a more complete picture of the range of postsecondary options and career avenues available to them that require postsecondary training but not necessarily a baccalaureate degree. Employer Involvement in STC Appears Fairly Common As we previously indicated in our evaluation proposal and other project reports, gathering reliable quantitative data that would allow generalizations about levels of employer involvement in STC throughout the state as a whole would be an enormous and costly challenge.