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During the language learning sequence, students may need to focus their attention on the components of language and to practice manipulating them (Chastain, 1988). Franco (1996) states that it has always been focused primarily on the teaching of a language as a means of oral communication- listening and speaking skills with secondary emphasis on reading and writing skills. It is argued that learners lack vocabulary and have difficulty describing, defining, explaining, and paraphrasing their ideas and points of views.
It is clear that if the learners are not prepared well, we can not expect them to get good results in writing performance. In the process of teaching writing, there are some crucial parts such as organising information and generating ideas in a clear way.
By focusing on ideas, the relevant ideas would form the topic of the text. By connecting the ideas in a meaningful way, a fluent expression is created. In order to have a clear and fluent expresssion the sentences should be coherent. Cohesion refers to the grammatical and lexical connections between individual clauses. In addition to these, grammatical and stylistic devices should be taken into consideration in writing. In the last two decades, the researches in L2 writing have undergone tremendous growth. However, there are very limited studies in writing researches in linguistics. Also, there are very few studies on how students use writing competences to learn a second language. Most of the L2 writing researchers tend to address the issue of how students learn to write in a second language.
In literature, there are many studies about proficiency of language skills and its effects. Depalma and Ringer (2011) argue that discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition studies have focused primarily on the reuse of past learning, and thus have not adequately accounted for the adaptation of learned writing knowledge in unfamiliar situations. This study theorizes a construct forged from collective insights on transfer of learning in the fields of educational psychology, education, and human resource development--namely, adaptive transfer. In another study, Sersen (2011) aims to utilize an experimental-education technique for improving the writing skills of Thai English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students.
This improvement of skills is sought by making the student-participants in this study consciously aware of those specific aspects of LI to L2 transfer that would appear to affect their English writing products in a very direct and negative professional custom essays way. The results of this research suggest that making students consciously aware of negative (LI to L2) transfer has resulted in a mitigation of certain aspects of that transfer, hence, yielding a degree of improvement in writing skills.
The results reveal that the first language interference errors fell into 12 categories and different structural features required in a genre influences the writing errors made in the genre. In fact, the instrumental role of writing in the acquisition of a second language has a very important place.
The effect of writing in language acquisition is not only in one direction from LI to L2. The interference of language items are bilateral or multileteral.
However, there are very few studies on the transfer of L2 writing to LI. As this area has not received a great deal of research attention, some points have not been analyzed yet. In the study, the connection between language proficiency and writing skills in L2 and LI is scrutinized. MATERIALS AND METHODS Research design The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship of L2 and LI writing proficiency and writing skills transfer from the L2 to the LI.
The LI courses in universities and their highschools have same contents and equal-course hours. So, in this study, it is accepted that these two groups have almost same LI writing proficiency (Table 1). Research instruments and procedure Data help on essay for the study were collected after one group of students completed their L2 writing courses. An essay writing exam in LI was used to examine explicit proficiency of first language writing.
This assessment contains 300-word-vocabulary essay writing consisting of five assessment items mentioned earlier. In assessment, through the writing criteria check list, sentence connectors, verb tense, question words, articles, prepositions, word forms, adjectives, pronouns, relative pronouns, adverbs and auxiliaries were also checked. In their English writing course, the students have gained a different perspective via different types of materials such as newspapers, magazines and academic works. The main goal of the course was to teach how to organize a paragraph and to make the students to be able to write an essay in different types. With the help of these, the students would learn how to analyze the problems and to gain critical thinking skills. In professional custom essays order to have practice, the students have developed their writing skills by writing subparagraphs. The students were introduced to different types of paragraphs.
Also, outlining, summarizing, spelling and punctuation were taught in the courses.