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The results indicated the students rated time pressure, negative evaluation of the teacher, and lack of sufficient English writing practice as the most important causes of writing anxiety. In relation to the influence of gender in writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety, the study found statistically significant differences between male and female students.
According to the results of the study, male students ranked higher than female students in terms of design, unity, and accuracy sub-components. There are controversial results in literature as regard the role of gender writing anxiety. The premium essay writing service common belief is that male students suffer more anxiety compared to male counterparts. A number of studies found female students have relatively lower levels of writing anxiety (Al-Asmari, 2013). However, there is also a line of research that suggests that female students suffer more anxiety.
Pappamihiel (2002), for example, found that females were much more anxious than males in the mainstream classroom. The results of the present study also found that although there are no differences between male and female students in relation to writing anxiety in general, female students were found to suffer more from somatic anxiety.
Another aim of the study was to compare students from different grade levels in terms of writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety.
The results indicated that there are no statistically significant differences in terms of content, design, and accuracy. However, statistically significant differences were observed in terms of unity and punctuation. As for punctuation, third grade students have the lowest level of self-efficacy beliefs. It was speculated that their self-efficacy beliefs may have been lowered by the fact that they have to write a research paper in this term, which is a demanding task for them. This might have lowered their writing self-efficacy in unity. As for writing anxiety, the variance analysis demonstrated that there are no statistically significant differences among grade levels in terms of cognitive anxiety. However, the participants were observed to differ statistically in terms of somatic anxiety and avoidance behavior.
Third grade students seem to suffer more from somatic anxiety and second and third grade student tend to avoid the writing task compared to fourth grade students.
Published by Sciedu Press 64 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN1927-6052 www. It is already expected that there should be a negative correlation.
The study produced the results that there were strong negative correlation between writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety.
That is to say, students writing self- efficacy increases as their anxiety decrease. Research also indicates that feedback was found to positively correlate with writing self-efficacy.
Therefore, future studies on writing self-efficacy can focus on the role of various models or various feedback methods in best writing essay Turkish context. The present study found that English Language and Literature department students have moderate to high level of anxiety.
In addition, more studies can be carried out on other variables that may reduce writing anxiety on the part of students. Rezaei, Jafari, and Younas (2014) in their study stated that Iranian students did not have an adequate level of writing self-efficacy and they attributed this to a variety of factors including L2 writing instruction, lack of motivation, L2 writing feedback, lack of target language proficiency and vocabulary, the interference of LI into L2 and psychological variables such as anxiety which is the focus of this study. Similarly, Abdel-Latif (2007) also ascribed low writing self-efficacy and high writing anxiety to factors like lack of sufficient English proficiency, lack of practice in writing, low self-esteem and fear of being assessed. Therefore, future studies on writing self-efficacy can focus on the reasons that cause students to have low level of writing self-efficacy. Box 17551, Alain, United Arab Emirates Correspondence: Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed Ismail, Faculty of Education, United Arab Emirates University, P. The study used a mixture of quantitative and qualitative procedures for data collection and analysis. Adapted strategy questionnaires, writing essay prompts and follow-up questions were utilized for data gathering. Thirty six university premium essay writing service students participated in writing three different essays (direct L2 essay, LI essay, and translated essay).
Furthermore, the participants responded to strategy questionnaires and answered follow-up questions. The results revealed statistically significant differences between direct and translated writing in favor of the first one. No significant differences between direct and translated writing in the use of strategies were found. Based on the results, the study ended with some recommendations to assist and direct future research.
Keywords: writing, direct, essay, translated, strategy, composition 1. Introduction Motivated by the limitation of previous studies in the area of direct vs.
Learning to write effectively in a second language has represented a real difficulty for many students of English as a second premium essay writing service language (ESL) for decades. Writing in L2 is considered not only a challenging practice but also a complex process (Wolfersberger, 2003). ESL writers find writing more challenging than other language skills as composing in the second language demands a number of cognitive and linguistic processes and strategies. These studies have reported that students with limited language proficiency might benefit from writing first in their LI and then translate their work into a second language. The influence of LI in L2 writing is immanent especially for older ESL learners. LI always impacts L2 writing as adult ESL students have already developed their writing skills and experience in their first language.