Phd thesis writing
The term writing across curriculum (WAC) is a broad term used by colleges and universities to refer to content courses in which writing is a medium of the learning process rather being the subject of the course. In most WAC programs, the responsibility for writing development was shifted from first-year composition courses to content courses in which students were expected to acquire writing proficiency through instruction and practice in a variety of content courses and fields (David, Gordon, and Pollard, 1995). In addition, the mba essay service understanding of literacy across phd thesis writing curriculum differs between high school and university. This was the nature of secondary schools, in which subjects were clearly separated.
This led to the perception among subject-based teachers that literacy was best left to the English department. After the Dartmouth Conference, however, there was an expectation that literacy would be taught across curriculum in secondary schools. One of the reasons for the shift was that the conference brought together representatives from various countries (e. It was the first in a series of conferences in which representatives of English-speaking countries discussed the ways in which writing was being taught. One of the results of the conference was an agreement among the participants to shift writing instruction from learning product to learning process. Smagorinsky (2002) observed that the Dartmouth participants, in particular those from the United phd thesis writing Kingdom, argued that the purpose of engagement with the English help writing a compare and contrast essay curriculum was to promote the personal growth of individual learners rather than to have students engage in a teacher-directed emphasis on the texts themselves. Dixon (1967), in his discussion of the issues that were raised at the conference, articulated the implications for instruction that were suggested at the conference: (1) teachers would no longer be the sole authority for what was happening in classrooms. UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT 63 Smagorinsky (2002) reported that the participants at the Dartmouth conference suggested that writing should take on a more exploratory character rather than always following formal conventions. Writing was to be taught as a process of discovery rather than simply reporting correct or approved information. The Dartmouth Conference also led to the recommendation that students should also learn subject content through writing (Kantor, 1987). This, in turn, became the theoretical underpinning for courses known phd thesis writing as Writing Across Curriculum (WAC) courses in which instructors assigned writing as a way for students to engage with the material in a more in-depth fashion. Knodt (2006) found that WAC programs were sometimes housed in English departments and sometimes in campus-wide programs. He explained the assumptions underlying the WAC programs are that students need to learn to write in many college disciplines and that many (or all) members of the faculty need to be involved in creating writing opportunities for students. Students in such programs write reports, observations of experiments, summaries of readings, in addition to essays.
UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT Comparisons between the Two Writing Environments Literacy across the curriculum seems to be more problematic in the university environment than in the high school environment. An essential difference between first-year university and secondary school is that writing in secondary schools does not, to the same degree, differentiate between domains because the university is not a single writing environment (Hansen, 2002).
In post-secondary institutions, there is no set curriculum and the same classes within a discipline will often have different goals and outcomes (Hansen, 2006). Writing instruction is left to the individual content area instructor. Bloom (2006) said that for many American colleges and universities, instructors are content to settle for student writing that is of a B level. In addition, there is no shared foundation among disciplines that could be used to begin teaching first-year students. An essential difference between first-year and secondary school is that writing in secondary schools does not differentiate between domains to the same degree. The differences between the writing situations in high school and those in university or college are significant enough that preparation for one may not result in preparation for the other. Beaufort UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT 66 (2007) further suggests that, as high school students make the transition to academic writing in universities, they often have trouble developing the more analytical writing style that is required. Beaufort came to this conclusion after conducting a case study with an undergraduate student from a major private university in the United States. Another difference between adolescents and first-year students is that writing in universities and colleges is often produced under tight time constraints (Carroll, 2002). According to Carroll, this does not allow first-year students to concentrate on strategy or writing process. High schools students do not operate under the same time deadlines as first- year students and their writing assignments are shorter than those that are expected at the university level (Applebee, 1981). Second, the avenues of communication between high school and college teachers of writing are not nearly as open as they should be. The effect of these two factors is widely differing sets of expectations among students, high school faculty, and college writing teachers, (p. The authors go on to say that UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT 68 new articulations of writing development must take into account the profound mismatch in expectations of teachers in secondary and higher education.
The goals of the two are often different, and this may well be necessary and right, given the responsibility of higher education to select and prepare people for specialized work and greater responsibilities as citizens.
He argues that the place for students to acquire an understanding of university level writing is in university. In addition, he holds that university level writing should be understood to include a broader definition.
It may be more effective for instructors to build upon the knowledge structures the students already possess rather than attempting to introduce new structures for the UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT 69 same concepts.