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And, while most LPs claim to have provided professional phd thesis writing services development opportunities related to curriculum integration, it does not appear that a majority of students are exposed to meaningful integrated curriculum on a regular basis. Within high schools, however, there is great variation in the degree to which STC has been incorporated into the fabric of the education experience. There are a number of different factors that are making it challenging for LPs to implement and sustain STC activities and programs. Finally, the findings of this evaluation study suggest that several phd thesis writing services key conditions are necessary to support sustainability of STC in California. LPs should be aware of the key conditions listed below as they continue to build upon their STC successes.
However, STC is not yet a comprehensive reform approach that engages all students.
Although the sustainability of an STC system in California is not supported by the findings of this statewide evaluation, the findings do suggest that some key STC elements, such as widespread access of students to career awareness activities, are likely to be sustained based on local needs and efforts.
However, coordination between secondary and postsecondary institutions appears more robust. Both teachers and administrators report that STC-related professional development opportunities should be more frequent and extensive.
The most common curriculum integration strategies are those that require the least amount of time, resources, and collaboration (e. Teachers and administrators from schools with a high level of STC implementation believe that STC can help provide an impetus to raise academic standards, while those from schools with a lower level of STC implementation see STC as having no influence on raising academic expectations or increasing student performance on standardized tests. Employers are most involved at the high school level and in low-intensity career activities that require them to invest relatively limited resources.
These organizations sometimes serve as LP leaders, but more often have only a limited presence in STC efforts. Findings indicate that STC provides a rationale and structure that can support existing connections between secondary and postsecondary institutions. STC participation has also had positive effects on student attendance and preparation for postsecondary education. However, individual PLUS case study data provide some evidence that STC can have a positive effect on preparation for postsecondary education (i. The future of more intense STC activities and programs is less certain. CBOs), turnover of leadership at various levels, limited time and money, lack of teacher knowledge about how to implement STC activities and curriculum elements, and cumbersome, time-consuming reporting requirements. RECOMMENDATIONS Offered below are recommendations for sustaining and expanding the reach of STC in California.
In this environment, schools and teachers need to understand how STC can support increased student achievement relative to important standards before they can fully embrace STC. This calls for a well-articulated vision of STC and , its significance to student achievement that is persuasive to schools and teachers.
This vision must be supported by convincing evidence of the impact of STC on students. There is additional evidence that STC positively impacts attendance and preparation for postsecondary education as measured by increased completion of University of California A-G admissions requirements.
The positive findings from this evaluation should help more key stakeholders recognize the potential of the initiative. Promote THE STC Vision Once an STC vision has been articulated it needs to be aggressively promoted at the state and local levels. STC needs a strong voice to aggressively and strategically make the case for the importance and relevance of STC principles to the overall vision of education reform in California. The findings from this study that demonstrate the promise of STC in terms of improved student attitudes towards school, engagement in their studies, and increased attendance could be used to support arid promote the vision. Promotion by state and local leaders may help teachers, in particular, become more familiar with the philosophy and purposes of STC, and thus be more inclined to support STC efforts. Implement a Statewide Student Data best custom essay writing services Tracking System Both the local and statewide evaluation efforts that contributed to this study were hampered by the unavailability or limited availability of student level data. Although it is important to protect student privacy, there is clearly a need for a comprehensive student phd thesis writing services data system in order to better monitor and evaluate the impact of STC and other reforms on schools and students. This will allow for future comprehensive studies that follow-up on promising STC implementation and sustainability practices that have been suggested by the current study. On a positive note, there has been a statewide effort underway for the last several years to develop and implement a comprehensive student information system. What CSIS will not provide are data on students after they leave the K-12 system. Provide Leadership and Support for System-Building Initiatives The results of this evaluation study underscore the importance for policymakers to take a long- term perspective on new, promising reforms, such as STC. A longitudinal view is important to allow for proper implementation of a comprehensive reform strategy and examination of its impact. Hands-on leadership is necessary to ensure progress towards long-term goals.
Local efforts clearly need strong guidance and support to develop and sustain STC. Finally, effective leadership for system-building initiatives must meaningfully connect STC to other related career-technical educational initiatives, such as California Partnership Academies, Tech Prep, ROP, and community and service learning. These connections could serve to leverage and strengthen each individual initiative. More importantly, the connections should weave a more comprehensive network in support of career-related education in phd thesis writing services California. Beginning in 1996, California was awarded an implementation grant from the National School- to-Work Office.
The State has used this money to provide incentives for stakeholders to form partnerships and implement ongoing STC-based efforts in conjunction with other education and workforce initiatives.
These deliverables have set the stage for the current document, which is the culmination of the l-Vi year evaluation study. Whereas some of the previous reports from this statewide evaluation project focused on the broad picture of STC in California and the nation, the primary focus of this final report is on case studies of selected local partnerships (LPs).