Personal statement essay help
This mode of grasping is not instinctive and must be learnt.
The child in instinctive grasping shows a tendency to encircle the ob- ject with the four fingers, not opposing the thumb in any way. It follows that even the method of holding the pencil is some- what difficult for very young children to acquire. In the actual work of writing the thumb and fingers have different functions. If we wish a curve to the right, the thumb applies extra pressure to produce it. If we wish a curve to the left, the middle finger gives the necessary guidance. The index finger helps to make the down strokes, the thumb the up strokes. The third and little fingers meanwhile support the hand and must adjust themselves to the work of the other fingers and the thumb.
We have seen that the ordinary method of holding pen or pencil is a matter of some difficulty for young children. This is still more true of the finger movements in writing. The thumb, index finger, middle finger, and two supporting fingers have to make different movements either simultaneously or in very quick succession. Experiment has shown that young children do not easily move one finger to the exclusion of the 29 rest, as for instance must be done in personal statement essay help piano playing. Even an adult has difficulty in separating one finger or a group of fingers from the others.
The nerve cells controlling the fingers form an associated group which naturally acts as a whole innervating all the fin- gers personal statement essay help at once to the same action.
On the other hand the nerve cells controlling the thumb comprise a separate group and consequently association paths must be formed between these two groups before co-ordination of action in thumb and fingers becomes easy. The foregoing assume that the fingers take an active part in the formation of letters.
From his tracer records it is plain that, (1) The amount of finger movement varies greatly with various writers, but only a very few who have had special training in excluding finger movement are able to do so en- tirely. When the arm movement is excessive, a tendency appears in the writing to- wards an elimination of curves.
It is plain, therefore, that the fingers usually do the fine formative work in making the let- ters, while the arm carries the hand across the paper and assists the fingers to some extent, usually rather slight, in forming the letters. It is obvious that the arm may carry the hand across the paper in either of two ways. The forearm may rotate on the muscle pad below the elbow, with the elbow as centre of rotation, or may be lifted and shifted along the paper in pauses between words. Both methods fulfill their purpose of bringing the hand into an easy writing position again. Furthermore, it is less fatiguing as less effort is required to swing the forearm around with the muscle pad forming a point of support than to shift it bodily, just as it requires less force to rotate a wheel on its axle than to drag it locked over the ground or to carry it off the ground entirely.
It appears, therefore, that to insure an economical forearm movement the desk should be so high that when the pupil is sitting erect or very slightly bent forward, his forearm should rest upon it with the elbow well out from the side of the body. To take this position at too low a desk can be done only by bending the body too far forward, and so a low desk necessitates either an uneconomical forearm movement or an unhygienic posture.
It is possible for rotation of the hand with the wrist as centre to occur as well as rotation of the forearm about the elbow. It is plain that either the rotation of the hand on the wrist or of the forearm on the elbow will produce an arc of a circle, the latter the flatter one as the forearm which forms the radius of its circle is longer than the hand which is the radius of the former. If we now write two lines, using the some rotation as above, personal statement essay help and taking care to exclude as far as possible all movement except those of the forearm and hand respectively, the lines of writing will curve upwards in a similar fashion.
It appears at once that some further adjustment is neces- sary to keep our writing in a straight line across the page. This is done by humping the hand in the middle of the line, thus flattening out the curve.
As the hand traverses the line it is easy to observe the pencil or pen becoming more vertical as it approaches the centre of the line, and assuming a greater 31 slant at either end. The arc may also be flattened by draw- ing back the whole arm in the centre of the page. My own observation leads to the conclusion that both cheapest essay writing services adjustments are used by nearly everybody, the first if the paper is narrow and the adjustment needed consequently small, the second if the paper is wide and the arc to be adjusted correspondingly large.
It is obvious, too, that since the arc obtained by rotation of the hand is so deep, such rotation should be excluded entirely from writing or confined within very narrow limits.