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Second, theideological model of literacy refers to literacy as culturally and politically involved practices (process oriented). Lea and Street (2000) identified three models according to three contexts of literacy socialization in higher education research: study skills, academic socialization, and academic literacy. The study skills model represents the autonomous literacy perspective that emphasizes writing skills and knowledge isolated from any particular context. The academic socialization and academic literacy models are embedded in institutional contexts. The study skills view focuses on the mechanical characteristics of language (e. This model accrued criticism from its lack of addressing the needs and expectations of students who have different linguistic and cultural backgrounds, and the contexts brought to learning the reading and writing skills.

This criticism led some scholars to investigate the perspective that learning academic writing is a process of academic socialization that includes more than justlearning the technical aspects of writing. Students face challenges in their studies when beginning to acquire new sets of literacy practices. Emirati and Saudi students are considered Gulf region students as well because they are from the Gulf region countries. The rapid development has had influence on the strategic planning of the English language preparation programs. Policy makers in these countries encouraged learning English to keep up with the modernization, which is a significant subject to teach in their curriculum at all educational levels.

However, Gulf region students see no significance in communicating in English in their native countries where the surroundings are mostly communicating in the native language, Arabic. English might not be used beyond their classroom (Syed, 2003). They face similar challenges as Arab learners because they share common language and culture.

For instance, Jordanian students learn English in their native countries which the official language is Arabic as the Gulf region countries. The opportunities of learning and practicing English naturally are very limited to communicating with tourists. Research Design and Method The focus of this research is a comparative study of Saudi and Emirati students who transition into U. To attain the main purpose of this study requires responding, the constituents of this inquiry are: 89 www. The study is a mixed-method approach that integrates quantitative and qualitative strategies involving surveying 219 students followed by interviews.

Research criterion-based purpose sampling (Patton, 2002) frame of this study was used that includes selection of students from different US universities who are Gulf-region natives. For the quantitative data, the researcher created a database to store the results from the Quartlics website. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 16. The researcher calculated and identified the mean, range, and standard deviation scores for all these categories using SPSS software. The qualitative strategy provided an opportunity for the voices of Emirati and Saudi students to emerge.

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The interviews were coded to themes for analysis (thematic analysis). Content analysis was utilized to interpret the data.

Member checks of the survey questions and interview is employed (Merriam, 2002) in this study assures validity. This study is part of a larger study that examines linguistics challenges of Emirati and Saudi students in the U.

Results This section presents some of the findings of the questionnaire and the interviews. Regarding the comfort level of doing written assignments, 27. Differences between Saudi and Emirati students were significant for two of those challenges. No significant differences are apparent in means between Saudi students and Emirati students for the other five challenges. Second, the important examination is the degree of change means.

Examining the means in the two tables, very little change in values is apparent. This buy coursework online represents be evidence that leaving the neutral option in the analysis is appropriate. Since removing the neutral options causes little change in mean values, the neutral option could remain in the analysis (See Tables 5, 6 (a) and 6 (b).

Questionnaire results related to research question 2: how do Emirati and Saudi students cope with these writingchallenges to succeed in the U. Both style and content were areas of emphases for 47.

Theme 1: Linguistics Challenges (Writing, Vocabulary, and Grammar) Emirati and Saudi students identified linguistic challenges in their writing that influence the language socialization process pay to do my paper in classrooms. English vocabulary and grammar are linguistics aspects which Emirati and Saudi students emphasized as creating difficulties. Flassan commented: My language when I came here was very pay to do my paper poor. This is an important problem which Saudi students pay to do my paper face. Khalifah commented: At the beginning, I was silent in the classroom in the language preparation program. I was shy, afraid to talk and make mistakes because others may laugh.

Khaled emphasized that writing is always a challenge for himself and his Emirati peers: This semester I worked with two American students and one of my Emirati friends. I and my friend are not good at writing because writing is always a challenge for us In working with a group of Emirati students and two American students, Khaled expressed his upset from a low grade because of his writing weakness. His response to the low grade is: If my student partnere were American, it would be better a little bit because he will know how to write. I and my Emirati friend were writing to reach 300 words. We buy a custom research paper give the ideas to the American students and he reaches 500 words. We have ideas but we do not know how to express our ideas and write them fluently. Khalifah commented: When I was in the language preparation program, I was writing around 250 words for preparation for IELTS. When I started my first class in college, the teacher told us to write around 1000 words.

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