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Revised Procedural Model sponses, record responses and then print out the log, a new component would be added. The revised proce- dural model would be as follows (see figure 10). Finally, in addition to developinga coding scheme that allows a researcher to measure the level of plan- ning that takes place pay someone to do my paper during a session, reviewing these logs as an outsider without the same context the two planners would have had also suggested that writing instructors might be able to use the computer logs as a powerful diagnostic tool. To help make the planning process more visible to students, the instructor could share several computer pay someone to do my paper logs with best site to buy research paper the class and lead a discussion that talks about the reasons why particular ideas or plans appear to hold more promise than o thers. Or, the instructor could make connments on the logs and return them to the students. Pittsburgh, PA: Center for the Study of Writing, Carnegie Mellon University. Pittsburgh, PA: Center for the Study of Writing, University of Cali- fornia at Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon University. Planning in Writing: The Cognition of a Con- structive Process (Technical Report No. Berke- ley, C A: Center for the Shidy of Writing, University of California at Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon Uni- versity. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University Nouwirth,C. Collaborative Writing and the Role of External Repre- sentations. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston, MA. Class Sizeand English in the Secondary School Urbana,IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Wallace Carnegie Mellon UmERsnr The most striking feature of these planning sessions is the variety of ways in which these students handle the interplay between managing topic information and addressing rhetorical concerns. Vfhat emerges from these three portraits is not a single model for successful rhetorical planning but a collection of workable patterns. Alicia, a tenth-grade high school student, is telling her friend Maria about her plans for the extended definition papers that their teacher has recently assigned. This writing assignment asked Alicia and Maria to pick a phenomenon or abstract concept, to define it, and then to extend that definition based on their personal experience. In the following excerpts, Alicia focuses on facts, on laying out the content that she has gathered from several sources. In this first segment, she begins with a dictionary definition of a nova, the topic of her paper, and then explains her basic plan for writing the paper. Okay, and the sun and a star, you know, are like related. As the session continues, Alicia moves from describing novas in general to describ- ing in great detail what would happen to the earth if the sun were to become a supernova. This assignment asked her to develop her basic definition by relating it to personal experience. The case studies in this article examine what happens when students face new writing tasksand try to engage in rhetorical planning, planning that relates content ERIC COLLABORATIVK PLANNING: CONCEPTS, PROCESSES, AND pay someone to do my paper AsSlGNTvlENTS 71 knowledge to the rhetorical concerns of purpose, audi- ence, and specific discourse conventions.
The transcripts of these planning sessions allow us to observe their con- versations and eavesdrop on both their patterns of interaction and the problems that they encounter.
The participants in this study all faced writing tasks that were largely new to them.
The high school students, of whom pay someone to do my paper Alicia is one, often wrote essays and reports, but the extended definition paper called for them to combine their own experiences with informa- tion that they had gathered from sources. In contrast, the thiid-year college students whose experiences I will describe had a great deal more writing experience than the high school students, but their course also intro- duced them to new genres for writing (e.
In short, each of these writers found themselves in situations like the one that Alicia faced in the excerpts above. That is, they often had to transform topic knowledge, recast collections of information according to the constraints of new writing tasks that specified new purposes, audiences, and discourse conventions. Their planning sessions expand our understanding of how students begin to transform information according to rhetorical concerns. Indeed, several studies suggest that the ability to deal with content knowledge in terms of rhetorical concerns is a critical difference between ex- perienced and inexperienced writers.
Inexperienced writers are often fairly good at creating what Flower and Hayes call plans to say (con- tent generation and arrangennent) but do not attempt or havedifficulty with plans to do (pay someone to do my paper rhetorical planning). For these writers, planning often means making a list of chunks of information to be included in a text, much as Alicia did in the eariier excerpt.
Certainly, gathering and organizing information is an important part of the writing process. Often as they face new and more complex writing tasks, inexpe- rienced writers need to move beyond arranging infor- mation and develop an awareness that writing can do more than report information. A study conducted by Burtis, Bereiter, Scardamalia, and Tetroc suggests that the ability to distinguish between plans to say and plans to do may be at least in part a developmental issue. As age increased, students were more able to distinguish between plan- ning what they wanted to say in their texts and making rhetorical plans, plans that consider audience, pur- pose, and discourse conventions.
Scardamalia and Bereiter characterize the differ- ence between the knowledge-based planning of inex- perienced writers and the rhetorical planning of expe- rienced writers as knowledge telling versus knowledge transformation. In contrast to experienced writers who transform their content to meet rhetorical constraints, the elementary school students in this study often relied on a "what nexr strategy, which prompted them to simply add the next piece of information. In short, the work of these process-tracing re- searchers suggests that the ability to transform knowl- edge into plans that are sensitive to rhetorical concerns may be a least in part a developmental issue. These shidies suggest that by junior high student writers may be able to engage in rhetorical planning when prompted help with a research paper to do so. However, research comparing expert adult writers withcollege freshmen writers hasdemonstrated that more experienced writers pay a great deal more attention to rhetorical concerns.
The distinction be- tween texts that present collections of information and texts that transform knowledge according to rhetorical constraints is not new.