Paraphrasing in counselling
Similarly, one PLUS study demonstrated that participating in a career-focused curriculum leads more students to complete Algebra II. Perhaps the most significant contribution of STC to systemic change is a clear shift toward greater focus on career awareness as a key element of the education experience provided to students. In some ways, this finding is not surprising since compared to the range of possible STC activities, career awareness activities are much easier to infuse into the curriculum than other more intensive activities. Moreover, investing in career awareness activities is less costly than supporting new instructional delivery models, such as academies. Finally, career awareness is the arena of STC activities in which employers are more likely to become and remain engaged. Even though career awareness activities are considered low-intensity STC activities, they have demonstrated important constructive effects on particular student attitudes and behaviors. The implications of this key finding are considerable. First, they validate what many LPs and schools are already doing, verifying the effectiveness of offering career awareness activities to the full range of paraphrasing in counselling students. In particular, LPs and schools with limited STC resources should be heartened by this empirical finding that investing in career awareness activities (as opposed to the more expensive intensive activities) is a worthwhile strategy with demonstrated impact. Second, other systemic STC features can be built upon the foundation provided by career awareness activities.
For example, a strategic, yet comprehensive STC approach may be to target career awareness activities (e. However, the limited time frame and resources of the national and state STC movement make it unrealistic to expect that the systemic paraphrasing in counselling changes envisioned for STC would be completed at this time. Nonetheless, it is important to examirie the progress made to date by California LPs in the direction of sustainable systems.
LPs across the state have been thinking seriously about how to sustain an STC system in California, given the sunsetting of STWOA funding and the availability of limited State support.
More importantly, many LPs are taking strategic steps to sustain and expand the effort expended to date. Data from both case study and non-case study LPs suggest that LPs are pursuing a wide variety of strategies to sustain STC activities. Moreover, data from the high school Administrator Survey indicate that school-level efforts to sustain STC are not widespread within the 13 case study LPs. As such, it is likely that low-intensity career awareness activities that are relatively easy and cost-effective to implement (e g.
Groundhog Job Shadow Day) will continue to be offered in many schools. The future of more intense STC activities and programs is less certain. While student participation in community service and service learning is relatively common, participation in other career exploration activities such as mentoring experiences, internships, and apprenticeships is relatively low in most schools. And, while most LPs claim to have provided professional development opportunities related to curriculum integration, it does not appear that a majority of students are exposed to meaningful integrated curriculum on a regular basis.
Finally, the findings of this evaluation study suggest that several key conditions are necessary to support sustainability of STC in California. LPs should be aware of the key conditions listed below as they continue to build upon their STC successes.
However, STC is not yet a comprehensive reform approach that engages all students.
Although the sustainability of an STC system in California is not supported by the findings of this statewide evaluation, the findings do suggest that some key STC elements, such as widespread access of students to career awareness activities, are likely to be sustained based on local needs and efforts. However, coordination between secondary and postsecondary institutions appears more robust. Both teachers and administrators report that STC-related professional development opportunities should be more frequent and extensive. The most common curriculum integration strategies are those that require the least amount of time, resources, and collaboration (e. Teachers and administrators from schools with a high level of STC implementation believe that STC can help provide an impetus to raise academic standards, while those from schools with a lower level of STC implementation see STC as having no influence on raising academic expectations or increasing student performance on standardized tests. Employers are most involved at the high school level and in low-intensity career activities that require them to invest relatively limited resources. These organizations sometimes serve as LP leaders, but more often have only a limited presence in STC efforts. Findings indicate that STC provides a rationale and structure that can support existing connections between secondary and postsecondary institutions. STC participation has also had positive effects on student attendance and preparation for postsecondary education. However, individual PLUS case study data provide some evidence that STC can have a positive effect on preparation for postsecondary education (i.
The future of more intense STC activities and programs is less certain.
CBOs), turnover of leadership at paraphrasing in counselling various levels, limited time and money, lack of teacher paraphrasing in counselling knowledge about how to implement STC activities and curriculum elements, and cumbersome, time-consuming reporting requirements.
RECOMMENDATIONS Offered below are recommendations for sustaining and expanding the reach of STC in California. In this environment, schools and teachers need to understand how STC can support increased student achievement relative to important standards before they can fully embrace STC.