In other words, by grasping the organizing principle and the referential meaning according to which the fact of the difference was to be understood, the student would be able to make up for a lack of knowledge of cross-tabulations. Indeed, the most interesting aspect of skill in learning is that students are able to overcome deficiencies in previous knowledge. To learn paraphrasing helper to use previous knowledge, to organize and to extend meaning are important aspects of skill in understanding and learning. Learning Organized Wholes In the preceding section of the discussion, our concern was with the understanding of a fact or facts. In the last example we gave, the differences in pass rates (which buying papers for college constituted the facts we focused upon) appeared within the framework of a more complex unit of meaning — i.
Indeed, we saw that the learning, remembering and understanding of this fact was related to the organizational and referential setting in which the fact was embedded. In more complex learning, however, the aim underlying a learning task involving material such as an academic text is not the learning of facts, but rather the learning of an organized whole in which certain facts are embedded.
The aim has become the learning of the organized whole, through a grasp of the interrelation between the parts which make up that whole. Within this organizational and referential framework, a specific fact is often of no consequence.
It often does not matter whether the fact itself has been remembered or paraphrasing helper not, and it may not even matter if the fact has not been understood. In this section, we shall be concerned paraphrasing helper with the learning of organized wholes, defined as unities of distinctive parts which are interrelated. Understanding organized wholes We shall continue with the earlier example of a text about university pass rates to give a description of qualitative differences in the understanding of the text as a whole. If one wants to increase the pass rate, one should take selective measures, i. If one wants to increase the pass rate, one should take different measures for different groups. There are differences in examination pass rates between groups of students. The four categories represent different treatments of the message of the article. They consider a concern for measures as just another unit of meaning.
The specific structure, however, is not the same in each case. The differences between 64 THE EXPERIENCE OF LEARNING groups of students mean that in some groups the pass rate is in line with urgent custom essays expectations, while for others it is not.
Therefore, if any measures are needed, these measures should be directed only towards those groups where pass rates are below expectations. In other words, it is stressed that nothing need be done about certain groups of students, so the measures to be taken should be selective. The four categories of outcome are thus based on four qualitatively different ways of organizing the content of the text when reading and remembering it, i. At the same time there is a more fundamental difference between the skills embodied in categories A and B and those embodied in C and D.
As our earlier discussion implies, there are usually important differences too within these main categories of approach and organiza- tion. Within the atomistic approach, the parts may be differently delimited, internally integrated and ordered.
Such differences will also exist within the holistic approach, but here the main difference will concern the principles adopted in organizing the parts into a whole. Several general principles of organization such as narratives, argument- conclusion, principle-example and cause-effect are often commonly recognized as essential to a given material. The level of agreement amongst individuals about the organizing principle of course also reflects the experienced clearness or ambiguity of the material.
The relatively high degree of agreement which usually exists creates a situation where the main difference becomes one between those recognizing and using the principle of organization and those not doing so, i.
Although the fundamental difference between holistic and atomistic understanding in many cases is the main difference among a group of persons, this may not always be the case.
Different learning materials lend themselves more or less readily to the identification and use of a main principle of organization. In some cases, everyone in a given group may very well use an atomistic approach while in other cases all will use a holistic approach. This does not exclude the fact that individuals display some degree of consistency in their approach to similar kinds of material, SKILL IN LEARNING 65 a degree of consistency, however, that varies between individuals. To illustrate the fact that a difference other than that between a holistic and atomistic approach may be the most important one in a specific case we shall give an example. Unlike the earlier examples, this example does not focus on interaction with a text or message but on relating to and thinking about a physical phenomenon. The students were asked to describe and explain a number of different physical events.
The present example, which has also been discussed in Chapter 2, concerned what happens when a car is driven in a straight line on a motorway at a high constant speed.
The most general and fundamental principle used to organize the whole phenomenon was that of cause and effect. However, the relevance of a cause-effect relation as the superordinate one is apparent to all of the students in this instance. The difference that does emerge concerns how cause and effect are delimited and related, i.