The structure of collabora- tive writing groups also varies, from collaborations that are structured by the teacher, with assigned tasks. Regardless of the form collaboration takes, the range of supporter behaviors seems to re- main the same. Thus, students might be more effective collaborators if they learn more about working xvith a supporter and as a supporter. Although suptx)rters are common to all collaboration, they differ in the ways they interact with writers. I detine supporters as unengaged, engaged, or involved, thus giving teach- ers, researchers, and theorists a way to characterize and talk about the supporter role. All supporters, though more typically those who are engaged or involved, have a repertoire of verbal moves that form the components of their interactions with writers. However, knowing about these moves is not enough for students become effective supporters because in isolation, these verbal moves are inadequate for explaining the interac- tion of collaborators.
Learning toconsolidate their repertoire into purposeful sequences can help students analyze what they are doing as sup- porters as well as anticipate what they can do.
In this section of the essay, I exam- ine the interplay of engagement and involvement as two primary distinctions between unsuccessful and suc- cessful supporters. I define engagement as the atten- tion a supporter gives to a writer, determined by com- ments and questions that indicate active listening. In- 24 volvement requires engagement, but it moves beyond by making the supporter an active participant who challenges the writer and offers thoughtful, purpose- ful, and productive contributions.
I explore distinc- tions between ineffective supporters who are generally neither engaged nor involved and effective supporters who are generally engaged or involved. Unengaged supporters are not active participants in the planning.
As a result, they make few relevant or productive contributions and seldomprobe or challenge inadequately developed ideas raised by writers. Example 1, an excerpt from the collaborative planning session between two high school sophomores, clearly shows that the supporter, Qay, is unengaged. In the excerpt, the conversational turns are labeled and num- bered. Clay is a perfunctory supporter, paraphrasing engine never taking time to ask for elaboration, to probe and challenge, or to offer his own suggestions.
Qay is not even an active listener, and he does nothing to support Avery in moving beyond his superficial approach to the assignment. S23 Qay W24 Avery S25 Qay W26 Avery S27 Qay W28 Avery S29 Qay W30 Avery S31 Qay W32 Avery S33 Gay Um, what is the reader goir. Because root beer is good, and I feel everyone else should like it, too.
What kind of language is appropriate for this audience? As he suggested questions, which they do research paper writing service cheap not adapt to their goes through the superficial motions of being a sup- particular situation although they have been taught to porter. He appears to have no purpose other than getting through with the list of questions. In contrast to the disinterest of unengaged supporter, engaged supporters demon- strate their interest and attention by listening carefully and encouraging the writer to explain and clarify the plan.
Typically, engaged suppx)rters encourage the writer to explore the plan by asking questions that require elaboration. W6 Paula The decline in the market share, by showing them the market share graphs.
Chuck is an engaged supporter who invites response. In the brief excerpt in Example 2a, paraphrasing engine he encourages Paula to consider the sup- porting evidence she might use (S5) and pursues issue of evidence by asking her what the evidence "has to do with—?
He urges Paula to elaborate, providing specific questions ,. What will be some of their reactions, and how will you deal with those? He asks her to establish connections between the rhetorical elements she is considering. Chuck continues, in Example 2H, by urging Paula to clarify and elaborate her positions, but he does not add his own views.
In an interview after the proposal was completed, she commented that she wished hersupporterhad "told her more," helping her identify the weaknesses in her plan and suggesting ideas for a stronger, more feasible solution. Forexample,Chuck does not prompt Paula to identify any problems with her recommenda- tion for moving from cardboard to plastic (e. Nor does he prompt her I o consider alterna- tives.
In short, although Chuck is an engaged sup- porter, Paula wants a supporter to be involved in contributing to the development of her plan. It was then that I spent the longest time thinking about this paper.
I began to question whether my evidence could support my ideas. How are you going to usei, uh, follow that argument? Intervening turns clarify what Chuck is asking Paula to talk about. W38 Paula I think plastic would be cheaper and, um, cleaner, not as messy ripping and — S39 Chuck Uh-huh.
Intervening turns focus on the resistance her plan will meet in this family-owned business. Example 2b: Excerpt from a collaborative planning session with an engaged supporhsr also began to brainstorm other possible recommendations. Clearly, then, working with a supporter helped Paula, but for her it seemed to be a starting essay writing service recommendation place that helped her to focus and articulate her plans and reminded her to keep her probably negative readers in mind. After the collaborative what is the best research paper writing service planning session she continued to examine her plan, evaluating what she and Oiuck had discussed. Typically, an effective supporter (engaged and involved) often initially takes the role of an engaged supporter, allowing the writer to assume the authority of the session and set the agenda, and then integrates the role of an involved supporter by contributing and challenging. Example 3 shows two college students working on the same assignment as Paula and Chuck. The writer, Jason, is a senior working with his graduate- student supporter, Darryl, on a proposal for his busi- ness communication class.
Darryl is an involved sup- porter who CO n tribu tes and challenges as they consider the audience for a report to recommend that the com- pany change the way its products are packaged.
The excerpt, which has been edited to eliminate repetition and elaboration, begins with the writer, Jason, on turn 6 of their collaborative planning session.