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It is extremely doubful whether such an attempt is ever justified.

Writing in modern times has a purely utilitarian purpose, so that aesthetic factors count for very little indeed.

It is a tool for work, and the less the tool is the subject of conscious thought, the better for the workman. In fact, for the skilled workman the tool becomes just a part of himself, and is used with no consciousness of it at all, the attention being focused upon the result to be achieved and not the means of achieving it. This should be the case with writing, and consequently an effort paper writing services online should be made to have the child learn it with as little consciousness as possible entering into the actual act of writing. Learning by imitation gives this result, while an analysis of the writing would inevitably lead to the fixing of attention upon it. This would prove to be a continual impediment to the proper use of writing as a means of expressing thought.

This short outline of the creative writing coursework ideas relationship of the writing act to the mental and physical development of the child is neces- sarily sketchy and imperfect. It has merely attempted to bring together the main facts in a very general way, and to clear the path for the more detailed discussions in the follow- ing chapters. WHEN an adult writes a word, it seems to him a sim- ple, almost instinctive act. Yet it involves the activ- ity of some five hundred muscles, and implies a co- ordination of muscular action which is by no means easy to achieve. It is the aim of the present chapter to analyze this muscular action as fully as can be done in the light of our present knowledge.

Careful observation will give us at once an insight into the more obvious of these movements. In grasping the pencil or pen the thumb is opposed to the index and middle fingers, while the third and little finger sup- port the hand as it rests upon the writing surface. This mode of grasping is not instinctive and must be learnt. The child in instinctive grasping shows a tendency to encircle the ob- ject with the four fingers, not opposing the thumb in any way. It follows that even the method of holding best custom essay writing services the pencil is some- what difficult for very young children to acquire.

In the actual work of writing the thumb and fingers have different functions. If we wish a curve to the right, the thumb applies extra pressure to produce it. If we wish a curve to the left, the middle finger gives the necessary guidance.

The index finger helps to make the down strokes, the thumb the up strokes. The third and little fingers meanwhile support the hand and must adjust themselves to the work of the other fingers and the thumb. We have seen that the ordinary method of holding pen or pencil is a matter of some difficulty for young children. This is still more true of the finger movements in writing. The thumb, index finger, middle finger, and two supporting fingers have paper writing services online to make different movements either simultaneously or in very quick succession.

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Experiment has shown that young children do not easily move one finger to the exclusion of the 29 rest, as for instance must be done in piano playing. Even an adult has difficulty in separating one finger or a group of paper writing services online fingers from the others. The nerve cells controlling the fingers form an associated group which naturally acts as a whole innervating all the fin- gers at once to the same action.

On the other hand the nerve cells controlling the thumb comprise a separate group and consequently association paths must be formed between these two groups before co-ordination of action in thumb and fingers becomes easy. The foregoing assume that the fingers take an active part in the formation of letters. From his tracer records it is plain that, (1) The amount of finger movement varies greatly with various writers, but only a very few who have had special training in excluding finger movement are able to do so en- tirely.

When the arm movement is excessive, a tendency appears in the writing to- wards an elimination of curves. It is plain, therefore, that the fingers paper writing services online usually do the fine formative work in making the let- ters, while the arm carries the hand across the paper and assists the fingers to some extent, usually rather slight, in forming the letters. It is obvious that the arm may carry the hand across the paper in either of two ways. The forearm may rotate on the muscle pad below the elbow, with the elbow as centre of rotation, or may be lifted and shifted along the paper in pauses between words.

Both methods fulfill their purpose of bringing the hand into an easy writing position again.

Furthermore, it is less fatiguing as less effort is required to swing the forearm around with the muscle pad forming a point of support than to shift it bodily, just as it requires less force to rotate a wheel on its axle than to drag it locked over the ground or to carry it off the ground entirely. The height of the desk or table has an im- portant bearing upon this movement. If the desk is fairly high, the elbow is forced to a position well away from the body, so that it is possible to shift the forearm without lifting it entirely away from the desk. On discount essay writing service the other hand, if the desk isl low the elbow comes more closely to the side of the body and there is at once a tendency to shift the whole forearm by using the shoulder muscles.

It appears, therefore, that to insure an economical forearm movement the desk should be so high that when the pupil is sitting erect or very slightly bent forward, his forearm should rest upon it with the elbow well out from the side of the body. To take this position at too low a desk can be done only by bending the body too far forward, and so a low desk necessitates either an uneconomical forearm movement or an unhygienic posture.

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