Paper writing help online

In the case of the students who see essay-writing as arrangement, the very frequency with which essays are prepared may help to account for the persistence of the conception.

The consequences may be especially acute as far as this particular group of students is concerned, for what also distinguishes these students is a perceived gap between their aspirations and what they achieve in their essays, combined with uncertainty about what essay-writing entails. And since the School and the tutor explicitly indicate what is required in a History essay, the uncertainty these students feel cannot evidently be resolved by informa- tion-giving, but represents a more fundamental problem. These students tend to place a premium on originality and to see essay-writing as a medium for self-expression. For these students, interpretation is bound up with their own ideas, thoughts and feelings. Whatever reserva- tions these students may have about their essay workload and its consequences, they see themselves as practitioners, in their essay- writing, of the discipline of History. Interviewer: What do you think the tutor was looking for in this essay? Although on my last essay he did say that I spent too much time explaining things, and I ought to be arguing and interpreting more, and so I was trying to argue and interpret all the way through this, as well as obviously having to bring in details. To maintain confidentiality, all of the students have been given fictitious names. Each judge was given a set of coding instructions and a sample of uncoded interview extracts.

The level of agreement reached, without consultation, was 84 per cent in both cases. Chapter Eight Learning from Problem Solving DIANA LAURILLARD Open University Introduction Problem-solving tasks are set as a regular part of the course work on most courses in science, mathematics and technology, and in some social science courses as well. Knowledge without the ability to apply it is rightly seen as a very poor commodity, and teachers therefore regard problem-solving exercises as an important part of learning.

Problems may sometimes be set to give students practice in some procedure, such as solving quadratic equations, but students learn little from this, other than a facility with the procedure itself. We are concerned only with problems intended to develop in the students at least a greater familiarity with their subject, and perhaps a better understanding as well. The teacher faces a difficult challenge in designing problem-solving tasks that fully serve this educational function. Such tasks should help the students to weave the factual knowledge they have into their own conceptual organization, by enabling them to elaborate the relationships between concepts and to impose structure on the information they have. If they do less, then the exercise can easily become a meaningless mechanical manipulation, and loses its real educational potential.

Naturally, for many teachers the choice of problem-solving tasks is circumscribed by the traditions of their subject, and there is relatively little creative effort involved in designing such tasks. Even when there is, it is more likely to be for the sake of the elegance of the problem, rather than for its educational value. But the design of problems is important because the cognitive activity inherent in a particular problem-solving task determines the way the student paper writing help online will think about the subject matter. A more imaginative problem that challenges the student and invites him to construct new ways of combining information will promote a better understanding. They were practised at defining the laws of supply and demand, but their lack of basic understanding was revealed by their inability to break out of familiar patterns of thinking to answer a very basic but unusual question.

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If we can establish the characteristics of a good problem-solving task we must then ask how successful it is in practice. This brings us back to the main theme of this book.

The aim overall is to clarify the nature of learning from problem-solving which may then enable us to use it more efficiently as a teaching method. Ways of Approaching an Understanding of Problem-Solving Human problem-solving has been a continuing concern of psychologists, and they have paper writing help online developed different ways of investigating it. In this section, two well-established approaches are introduced, namely Gestalt psychol- ogy and Human Information Processing, while the next section develops a critique of them based on empirical studies using qualitative methods. There are important differences between these two theoretical analyses of problem-solving. Gestalt psychology describes human cognition in terms of the quality of our perception and thinking, while information processing theory categorizes the mechanism of our perception and thinking. Not surprisingly, therefore, the two types of theory produce very different descriptions of problem-solving. Gestalt Theory and Problem-Solving The essence of Gestalt psychology is to emphasize the structural quality of the way in which we perceive, think about, and feel, the world around us. In order to see something, we focus on some part of it — like a word on a page. The essence of our perception is that each part exists by virtue of its relation to a whole, and can itself be seen as a whole. They also regard relationships between parts and wholes within that structure as constituting the forces that drive our productive thinking. In going through these examples we can see why the Gestalt theory can be useful in understanding problem-solving. It suggests, for example, that the best way of discovering how to find the area of a parallelogram is not by being taught a rule or algorithm, but by finding the underlying structure of the problem, and thereby solving the problem in a meaningful way. The reasoning process might run as follows: the parallelogram is essentially a rectangle in the middle, plus paper writing help online two extra triangles: Figure 8. They are not rectangles, but by rearranging the diagram they do fit together: Figure 8. Wertheimer (1959) describes this custom essay writing service org kind of process as follows (my parentheses): When one grasps a problem situation, its structural features and the requirements set up certain strains, stresses, tensions in the thinker. What happens in real thinking is that these strains and stresses (e. Such an account of problem-solving emphasizes the importance of the meaning of the problem for the student.

When we draw on Gestalt theory to think about problem-solving, it is inconceivable to think of teaching children to solve problems by some rote method. There are two main difficulties in applying Gestalt theory to the kinds of learning and problem-solving that occurs in the classroom.

One is that the problems researched are of a particular character — geometric, algebraic, mathematical. It is not clear how far the theory can help us with different kinds of problems, (e. Only occasionally shall we refer to the place, role and function of such a process within the personality structure of the subject and within the structure of his social field, (p. Again, in the conclusion, he describes the problem-solving process as:...

Does he just have to find the area of the parallelogram, or does he also have to do it in the way the teacher wants. If so, he may wonder whether or not he could get away with doing it his own way, or even consider the consequences of not doing it at all.

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