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And that is what we see in this volume of essays — efforts to put into dialogue and coherence the various dimensions of the teaching enterprise so that it becomes a learning enterprise for both teach- ers and students. Today we have theorists and discourse to help us think about what reflective teaching is. Perhaps most influential among the former is the philosopher Donald Schon, who comes to reflective teaching through his definition of the reflective practitioner. Cen- tral to his definition is the concept of patterns. Schon argues that it is by reflecting on our own work — by knowing it, by reviewing it, by discerning patterns in it, by projecting appropriately from those patterns, and by using such order custom term paper projections to hypothesize a new way of thinking about a situation — that we come to know and understand our work and perhaps thus improve it. But together they make reflective teaching visible, as we see in the essays collected here. Often that focus is planned, as when we intend to try something new.

Other times, a focus emerges from a student comment, a class listserv discussion, a session reading and responding to student texts.

That focus, however, becomes a point of learning for both teacher and students. Sometimes texts are analyzed for repetition or for change. Sometimes the perceptions of a teacher are compared with those of students.

Sometimes a prototypical student helps us understand how what we ask of students connects with earlier experiences, conflicts with other curricula, or constructs students in ways intended and not.

The analysis itself only signifies within a specified context, and explicating that context — and often more than one — brings meaning to the analysis. Reflective teaching relies on the past to point us in appropriate directions.

As the editors observe, individual chapters are the local versions of global concerns: course design, assignments, supporting activities, and teacher response and assessment. Put differently, our master narratives of the teaching of writing are rewritten through these individual accounts.

What struck me when I first heard Shulman talk about reflective teach- ing and about the two tasks that enable teachers to make knowl- edge was how formal they seemed.

For him, sharing seems to be the decidedly public act that we see in this volume, an interrup- tion of teaching that is luxurious in its infrequency, typically at predetermined points on a school calendar. There is, however, another way to understand cessation of activity and to define the sharing that follows. In fact, write my paper fast we do have opportunities to stop prac- tice, as we do to share what we think we have learned. Given the ubiquity of electronic conversation, I share with col- leagues around the country, and they share with me. And today I wonder as well if sharing, in this sense, also means sharing with students, bringing our observa- tions and hypotheses to them. Perhaps in making this knowl- edge — for that too is what reflective teaching is about — we will find in students our best audience and our order custom term paper best collaborators both. In other words, teaching and learning can be systematic and predictable. A quarter of a century ago Richard Young made much the same argument about writing. In opposition to those who under- stood writing as a solitary and random act subject only to muse and prayer, Young argued the reverse: that writing is not myste- rious, that it order custom term paper is more than a gift or a talent, and that it can be taught and learned.

If he regards each situation as unique, he has no reason to believe that a technique that was useful once will be useful again. If, then, the situation and its more general features can be identified, we can employ those again to good effect — as writers, and by implication, as teachers.

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One crucially important implication of this dif- ference, he maintains, is that the artist can teach others to carry out the activity, while those who merely have a knack cannot. Or she speaks in terms of con- text, for instance, about the placement of an assignment within a curriculum. Or in terms of a responding strategy that goes be- yond conventional understanding, widely held beliefs, or pub- lished research. In other words, reflective teachers assign causality to the stuff of teaching — tasks and processes and outcomes — as well as to the match between that stuff and the particular stu- dents who are themselves creating the stuff of learning. Moreover, reflective teaching, in its understanding of the relationship of individual iteration to generalizations, is a deliberate art. It relies on four assumptions that link theory, practice, and data — that link teaching and learning. It entails five pro- cesses that, like the processes of composing, are recursive and generalizable. It creates knowledge through a two-step sequence: occlusion of practice and a sharing of what is in order to under- stand what can be. And what can be will be better than what was: that is the promise of reflective teaching. Reflective teaching is more than useful, however, and more than important, although it is both of those. Reflective teaching changes the world we inhabit precisely because it high school essay help changes all of us. When the idea for the book presented itself, both of us were in the midst of either preparing new writing teachers for the classroom or designing workshops for experienced writ- ing teachers. As we talked long distance about our respective faculty-development projects, we suddenly discovered that both of us were confronting the same problem: how to introduce teach- ers to effective classroom practices while at the same time stress- ing the importance of disciplinary and institutional contexts. As experienced teachers, we understood the necessity of situating a particular teaching method within the context of current research and theory on teaching, learning, and writing. Although there are many resources available for preparing writing teachers, none seemed to fit our complex needs.

Not only did we want to emphasize the importance of context and reflec- tion, but also we wanted our students to see how real teachers think through various aspects of classroom practice. And because neither of us was employed by a state university with a large graduate program and the accompanying numbers of graduate teaching assistants to prepare, we needed something that would work for the assortment of graduate students and instructors we encountered: secondary English teachers pursuing an M. From the responses we received, we have compiled a collection of essays composed by writing teachers that describe a particular aspect of instruction (e. Because we believe that the theoretical underpinnings of teach- ing writing cross contexts, we have included contributors who represent a variety of teaching locations, including high schools, community colleges, Research I universities, and regional univer- sity campuses. Equally important, these contributors are posi- tioned in order custom term paper diverse ways withirrtheir institutions. Some dedicate most of their time to teaching, while others combine teaching with administrative work. Besides representing an assortment of institutions, theoreti- cal positions, and instructors, the essays describe a variety of writing courses, not just first-year composition.

Although many instructors begin their careers teaching this course, some, if not most, will eventually teach a range order custom term paper of writing courses, from basic writing to advanced composition and even graduate workshops.

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