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Continuity Speaking of the tertiary formations, Sir C. Appeal to But supposing the existence of such apparent general principle of gaps or breaches of continuity granted, and that we uniformity and con- failed to explain them by any such theoretical sug- tinuity. So strong is the inductive assurance of this, that we may safely allow any such apparent exceptions to await their solution without in the least influencing our opinion of the soundness of the broad principle of the continuity customized research paper of physical causes : a principle of that truly philosophical character which no excep- tion in detail can subvert, or render, in some form, inapplicable or unfruitful. No inductive inquirer can bring himself to be- NO real in- terruption. NO sudden Thus enough has probably been said to show how or inexpli- cable completely fallacious is the inference that in such agency ne- cessary, cases as those referred to, because we find an appa- rent interruption in the observed series of organic remains, therefore we are to conclude a real inter- ruption in the order and continuity of organic exist- ence. And still further from all sound reasoning or rational analogy must be the inference that, when we find in a superior bed, animal remains seemingly disconnected with those in an inferior, the actual origination of those distinct species was, therefore, in any way of a sudden or peculiar kind disconnected with the preceding order of things, or the orderly progress of natural causes.

Continued Throughout all the immense periods of the of physfcaT P r i me val earth in its manifold mutations, the re- inon? Thus in the inorganic world we trace the same slow and gradual elevations and depressions of con- tinents which we actually witness going on at present. We find the evidence (so beautifully illustrated by the researches of Sir C. Lyell), even back to A A 3 358 PHILOSOPHY OF CREATION. Continued But the unchangeableness of mechanical laws is changes in the organic always found under continual changes of outward world. But however little we know of the laws or causes introduc- f , tion of new 01 these changes, one thing is perfectly clear, the species re- gular, not introduction of new species was a regular, not a casual casual. The introduction of a new spe- cies (however marvellous and inexplicable order a paper some the- orists may choose to imagine it) is not a solitary occurrence. It reappears constantly in the lapse of geological ages. But a series indicates a principle of regularity and law, as much in organic as in inorganic changes. The event is part of a re- gularly ordained mechanism of the evolution of the existing world out of former conditionSj and as much subject to regular laws as any order a paper changes now taking place. That new species should be subject to exactly the same general laws of structure, growth, nutrition, and all other functions of organic life, and yet in the single instance of their mode of birth or origin should constitute exceptions to all physical law, is an incongruity so preposterous that no inductive mind can for a moment entertain it.

It must have been as truly subject to pre-arranged laws as any case of ordinary reproduction.

Lyell expressly includes lapse of order a paper time as an element among the conditions which he lays down in that grand maxim, worthy to have occurred in the " Novum Organon " " When we are unable to ex- plain the movements of past changes, it is always more probable that the difficulty arises from our ignorance of all the existing agents, or all their pos- sible effects in an indefinite lapse of time, than that 362 PHILOSOPHY OF CEEATION.

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But some questions are involved in the present in- quiry, which depend on a more particular reference to points of pure physiology, and to these the present section relates. He inclined, moreover, very strongly to the idea of in- vestigating organised structures on the principle. Hilaire, in proposing the principle of " unity of composition " as that on which alone a philosophical investigation of organised structures ought to be built, was strongly opposed to the followers of Cu- vier, especially in reference to the unphilosophical use of the appeal to final causes, in accordance with what has been already explained. If we look at the former question in a purely Principle of unity of scientific point of view, it amounts to the inquiry, compo- sition. So, again, the abortive teeth of the young whale are of no use except to prove its relationship with terrestrial mammalia. Unity of plan is adhered to in other cases where only one or two parts are developed, and the rest are merely ru- dimentary, or even altogether deficient, but no new part or formation is added. Nothing is made in vain if it be only made to preserve unity of system. The view of design has been contracted by the adoption of the false analogy of machines, in which unity of plan is not an object. With regard to the principle of et unity of com- 368 PHILOSOPHY OF CREATION. Enlarged position" itself, some general and vague notions unity of of the uniformity of plan pervading animal struc- tion. But it was reserved for Owen to give the full elucidation and establishment of these views, and to supply a detailed demonstration of a principle so. The research remained to be fully followed out by others : and as each of the great divisions of animal life the Vertebrata, Articulata, Mollusca, and Radiata had been shown to have separately a plan and an archetype of its own, the question which then arose was Can these four great rudimentary plans be shown to have a yet more comprehensive order a paper relation?

Can they be in- cluded under any one common and yet more elevated generalisation? It has been in carrying out this " developmental method" of comparison that the labours of sub- sequent inquirers in this field have succeeded in the full establishment, in detailed anatomical ex- amination, of the great idea of unity of composition : and what was at first little more than a philosophical romance, has in their hands risen to the rank of a demonstrated science. Analogy of The investigations of Professor Owen forcibly vertebrate and inver- elucidate, not only the correspondence traceable be- tebrate classes.

According to the distinction usually maintained in natural history, a species is not merely the logical subdivision of a genus, but implies the idea of dis- tinctive characteristics derived from a parent, and the reproduction of like individuals : it involves, not only the consideration of type, but of descent.

Huxley I am indebted for a valuable original sketch of these investigations, from which, by his permission, I am enabled to present to the reader a very copious extract in the Appendix.

But it is a subject on which nothing is known as to the real causes which may give rise to such changes, and on which, therefore, it is clearly unwarrantable to dogmatise, or to reason upon such failure as if it were a necessary law.

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