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In fact, legibility, as far as the actual writing is concerned, depends upon three factors. The second factor, when vertical writing is done carefully, does help to make it best mba essay writing service more legible than slant writing, as the connecting strokes by their slope serve to divide the ver- tical letters clearly, whereas in sloping writing the differenti- ation in direction between letters and connecting strokes is not so marked. But it is a well known fact that all up and down strokes tend to take the same direction in writing. Conse- quently we often see vertical writing which is very need to buy a research paper illegible because of this tendency.

We may conclude that vertical writing is less natural, easy, and rapid than sloping writing, and has only a very slight and rather doubtful superiority in legibility. This is particularly true in the case of the learner in whom writing has not yet become auto- matic. But even in the case of the most practised writers, the eye is of enormous aid in guiding, overseeing, and correcting the occasional errors into which need to buy a research paper the automatic muscle-sense is apt to fall. The movement of the hand across the sheet is followed closely by the eye. Obviously, this is a very slow rate of move- ment compared with the rate at which the eyes move in read- ing. A simple experiment shows that it takes about six sec- onds to read what can be written in one minute. It may be said, then, that the eyes move approximately ten times faster in reading than in writing.

This slow rate of movement is an important consideration in dealing with an argument advanced by the champions of vertical writing. They believe that the head will always be brought into such a position that the line joining the two eyes is parallel to the line of writing. If the paper is tilted to one side, as we have shown above, the head will be twisted 40 to enable the eyes to sight along the line of writing by mov- ing in a horizontal and not an oblique direction. This belief is based upon the Wundt-Lamansky law that the eyes move most freely ih a vertical or horizontal direction, and with greater difficulty in an oblique direction. Therefore, the con- clusion is drawn that if the paper is not parallel to the edge of the desk, and the writing vertical, either the eyes are strained by moving obliquely, or the head is twisted to ease the eyes. It is doubtful whether this argument can be allowed. In the first place, the eye-movement is so slow that the Wundt- Lamansky law probably does not apply. In the second, meas- urements made by other investigators have shown that the eyes are not brought into such a position that the line joining them is parallel with the line of writing, but that the line joining them is kept at right angles to the long downward strokes of the letters.

Now, as already has been noted, the main strokes of the letters tend to be perpendicular to the edge of the desk when the writer faces it directly. Conse- quently, the eyes in sighting along them, move in a horizontal direction even when the paper is tilted and the writing slanted in consequence. To focus the eyes upon any object within eighteen inches of them puts considerable strain upon them, and the closer the object the greater is the strain.

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If the object upon which they are focussed is equidistant from them both, the strain is re- duced to a minimum.

If, however, the object is closer to one eye than the other, a shorter focus is necessary for the nearer best custom essay writing services eye. In distant vision, the difference is negligible, but in read- ing or writing such need to buy a research paper a difference materially increases the nerv- ous strain, as the nerve centres controlling the two eyes are so intimately connected that a difference in the degree of focus can be obtained only with considerable effort. It follows that the centre of the paper should be placed in line with the middle line of the body.

Inevitably, the right edge of the paper will be further from the left eye than from the right, and vice versa, but the difference is the smallest possible, and may be corrected by just a slight turn of the head from one side to the other. This obviates any danger of a permanent curvature resulting from twisting the head to either side only, 41 as is the case if the paper is placed habitually to the right or left of the middle line of the body. It is plain that the essentials of good posture as far as the eyes are concerned will be these : (1) The writer must face the desk squarely. The object of the first two of these requirements is the same : to keep the eyes as nearly equidistant as possible from the point of focus.

The third prevents the increased eye- strain so conducive to myopia which is inevitable if too short focussing becomes habitual. Plainly, these three requirements of eye hygiene are just as easily practised when writing with the paper tilted as in the square front position. We may con- clude that there is no inherent hygienic benefit in vertical writing. Investigations have shown that in some cases at least the percentage of vertical writers who have spinal curva- ture is slightly lower than among slant writers. This slight difference is easily explained by the fact that vertical writing was introduced mainly with a view to teaching a more hygienic posture. It is very natural for teachers who favour it to emphasize correct posture, and so to obtain good results. WHEN a child begins to learn to write, its attention must need to buy a research paper be concentrated upon the mere shape, size, and direction of the stroke to be made, and upon the movement by which the end desired is achieved.

An adult is apt to overlook this important point, for, in his case, writ- ing has become wholly automatic. The control of the move- ment by the eyes and muscle-sense has become so habitual, the association paths between the sound need to buy a research paper of letters and words and the muscular movements which produce their symbols have become so well worn that he writes almost as unconsci- ously as he puts on and buttons his vest. It is the function of habit to remove from the conscious sphere all the petty but constantly recurring details of life. This relegation of such minor actions to the control of the lower centres leaves the higher brain centres free to work upon more important matters.

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