Narrative essay writing help
In this chapter an even broader focus is used to take account of the personal context from which the student views studying in terms of personal goals and values, as well as the demands of courses and lectures.
The experience of learning also depends on the institutional context — the way in which a particular educational institution operates, with its norms, values and traditions, and its particular procedures for teaching and assessment. In this chapter, we shall build up a broad picture of the world of the learner by exploring these various levels of description through case Itudies of particular students. Whereas I was inclined to take decisions fairly quickly on certain things, now I do have certain experience having studied a bit of psychology and sociology in places and I do try and perhaps see how things are going to interrelate and affect people — spend a bit more time on it and be a bit more thoughtful than I was before.
Describing the world of the learner must take account of both institutional and personal contexts for study. What are the formal demands of the assessment system — what sort of understandings are valued and rewarded by the formal curriculum?
The quotations above show the diversity of narrative essay writing help these changes, and the previous chapter showed some of the ways in which the institutional context influence the outcomes of learning. A similar interpretation of the effects of assessment was provided by Becker, Geer and Hughes (1968). In fact, if you try to really learn something, it would handicap you as far as getting a grade goes. At a more general level, the interaction of the education institution and the students can lead to particular sub-cultures. Clark and Trow (1966) described this interaction as follows: Two broad sets of factors shape the nature of the orientations and relationships of students in college. The first set flows from the character of the larger society. Students come to college with certain resources — material, moral, intellectual, emotional, and cultural. These resources are largely determined by the life experiences the Students have had, and these in turn are shaped by the statuses they and their parents have held in the larger society. The prior social locations and experiences also shape aspiration: the kinds of lives the students envision for themselves in a rapidly changing society. The second set of determinants derives from the nature of the colleges 168 THE EXPERIENCE OF LEARNING If.
A college is not simply an aggregation of students, teachers, and administrators. Although the character of a college is greatly influenced by the nature of its staff and students, it also has qualities and characteristics which are to some extent independent of the people who fill its halls and offices narrative essay writing help at any given moment. In our terms Clark and Trow were showing how distinctive sub-cultures emerged from the differing experiences of institutional and personal contexts of learning. Clark and Trow suggested four main analytical categories to describe these sub-cultures. They are not describing types of student, as a student may well participate in several sub-cultures, help on writing a research paper and the actual sub-cultures that exist may well combine aspects of more than one type.
The academic culture, present on every campus, is the sub-culture of serious intellectual effort applied to the world of knowledge and ideas. Students pursue knowledge and understanding — their symbols of the institution are the library, the seminar group and teaching staff with the same inclinations. The non-conformist culture differs from other cultures in its detachment from the college. Students are involved with ideas and learning but their points of reference are off-campus groups. There exists in this distinctive student style a somewhat aggressive non-conformism and critical detachment from the college. Clark and Trow summarized this typology of sub-cultures in terms of two main dimensions — the degree to which students are involved with ideas — and the extent to romeo and juliet essay help which students identify with the college or institution. Involvement with Ideas much little ACADEMIC COLLEGIATE NONCONFORMIST VOCATIONAL Types of Orientations of Four Most Distinguishable Student Subcultures. What are their aims and purposes in undertaking a course of study? With adult students, these questions are particularly important because of the voluntary nature of the education they are engaged in. However, there are problems with the use of this concept. Secondly, it has been used as an explanation of behaviour, which may not take account of the conscious control of learners over how and what they narrative essay writing help study. Where motivation is seen as a drive, students are viewed as essentially passive, being driven by factors out of their control. Similarly, some goal direction theories tend to view students as responding to stimuli, rather than actively constructing their own behaviour patterns. The focii of traditional studies are the motivational factors which push and pull students towards particular goals: e. However, such theories of motivation are based on theories derived from other contexts and Imposed on student learning without consideration of their validity.
More recent work on motivation, in relation to study processes (e.
Orientation assumes that students have an active relationship with their study. The first three of these types of orientation could be divided into two sub types according to whether the student was directly interested in the content of the course or whether they were studying the course merely as a means to an end. These sub-types were labelled intrinsic and extrinsic, respectively. Taylor found that the concerns that a student had while studying at university were intimately connected to the type of orientation they had and that these orientations and their concerns helped to make sense of the amount of effort the student made on different aspects of the course and university life (see Table 10.