Medical school essay service
In the learning of facts, we have to consider organization together with referential meaning. Words are another kind of sign which in combination are given referential meaning. Indeed, it is through medical school essay service their combination with words that the figures in the above example are given their referential meaning.
In this research, the phenomenon of grouping has been very clearly demonstrated, for although the words in the lists are presented in a random order it is found that the subjects arrange them into groups when learning the lists. The grouping is made on the basis of the meaning of the words. This kind of subjective organization has been well demonstrated by, for instance, Tulving (1962, 1968) and Marton (1970). Here, we are mainly concerned with series of related words expressing a fact, as in our example of Federal expenditure above.
We now turn to another example where the fact is presented together with other facts in a reading text. In other words, the facts are located within a text, and have been organized in a way which reflects the subject-matter of that text. This article was used in an investigation by Svensson (1976), and parts of the data from the same investigation were analysed by Marton (1975b) and have already been referred to in Chapters 2 and 3.
In the article, Dahllof presented statistical tables showing that pass rates differed between different groups of students (e. He then presented cross-tabulations showing that the more significant differences in pass rates medical school essay service were found amongst particular groups of students and between different kinds of universities — for example, the pass rate was high amongst younger men studying liberal arts at the traditional universities of Uppsala and Lund, but it was low amongst younger male arts students at the newer universities. If we now compare the problems posed by dealing with the facts about pass rates presented in this article with that given in the Federal expenditure example, we can see that there are very considerable differences. One important difference concerns the degree of specificity with which the facts are remembered. In the Federal expenditure example, the only fact to be remembered is the sum involved, and there SKILL IN LEARNING 61 may be some differences in the specificity with which this is recalled (e. In the case of the article, however, there is at one level the exact pass rates and at another, the fact that there are differences in pass rates in a particular direction. Indeed, the direction of the difference is easier to remember than the precise pass rates or the exact difference. The reason for this stems from the relation between this fact of the direction of difference, on the one hand, and on the other, the rest of the message of the text and the previous knowledge of the learner. It is difficult to find other facts that support the remembering of an exact pass rate. It is much easier to find support in other facts for the direction of the difference. The supporting facts presented in the text concern a general reference to differences between the universities in terms of the environment in which students study. Two specific differences are mentioned: that there are more job opportunities in the big cities and that group solidarity might be more highly developed at the older universities.
These supporting facts therefore make it understandable that the pass rate is lower in the big cities. They mirror the direction of differences in the pass rate, and they suggest that perhaps these differences can be seen in terms of a cause-effect relationship. In this case, then, organization and reference aid remembering of the direction of difference.
What may also help in remembering the difference is its relation to the overall organization of the content of the text.
The basis for this conclusion is the differences between groups of students, some of whom had a satisfying pass rate while others perhaps did not. Here, again, we can note that it is not necessary to remember any specific differences at all (nor even the correct direction of the difference) when recalling the point being made. If understood, it very strongly supports the recognition that there are differences between groups of students. There was a clear difference in the use of this organizing principle between students, and this difference also represented the main variation in understanding the text as a whole: we shall therefore turn to this in the section about learning organized wholes. Learning from understanding facts Whether a performance is to be considered skilled or unskilled varies in accordance with the criteria specified. This can be illustrated in relation to the example of Federal expenditure.
If, however, the criterion of performance is one in which the fact about Federal expenditure is to be understood as having meaning in the surrounding world, then the definition of skilled performance changes. With the grasp of the referential meaning as criterion, the more precise answer represents unskilled performance, and the less precise one skilled performance. What has actually been learned medical school essay service through reading the text cannot easily be determined.
The referential meaning that facts have is not necessarily fully acknowledged by students in their learning of these facts. The facts may be treated merely as units of information in a learning task. This, of course, means that there is a crucial difference in what might be learned: it might be something about the surrounding world or something about the text. Turning to the second example we gave, on differences in pass rates at Swedish universities, we can examine the role of previous knowledge as a basis for understanding and learning facts. In this example, it is reasonable to assume that the students already know what percentages and differences in percentage are, and that they know the meaning of the groupings of the students. Lack of knowledge in any one respect may cause problems in understanding the fact of the difference. Another problem may be that some students have not previously encountered cross-tabulations, and so fail to grasp their meaning. Although a student might not understand the meaning of the cross- tabulations because of a lack of prior experience of them, the student could have overcome this deficiency with the aid of the discussion which accompanied the tabulations.