Mba essay review service
In the first round of qualitative data collection, students who were in their final year of high school discussed their perceptions of the high school writing environment. They were prompted to report on their perceptions of their high school English Language Arts classes, their English Language Arts teachers, and any other courses that required them to write papers of some length. UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT 95 In the second round of qualitative data collection, students who were in their first-year of university were prompted to discuss their perceptions of the differences between the writing they had to do in high school and the writing they had to do in first-year university.
The focus group participants had the opportunity at the end of each focus group to read over the notes made during the session. At that time, they were able to verify the information and make any changes they deemed necessary. Before beginning the process of coding for themes, the transcripts were read once to get a broad overview of the data.
In conducting the initial read through, certain themes began to emerge. These initial themes were written in the margins of the transcripts. In this way, codes that had been identified subsequent to the first reading were added to the coding system. Once I had coded the data, an independent reader was given the transcripts and was asked to code the data.
The independent reader was trained by me in the method of recursive coding. After we each had had an opportunity to read through the transcripts and to mba essay review service identify themes in the data independently, we met to discuss and compare the codes to determine the degree of agreement. The comparison resulted in an inter-rater reliability of ninety-two percent agreement based on the codes that were generated by both my research assistant and me. Student Demographics A total of 144 mba essay review service high school students completed the quantitative survey (see appendix 1).
Students from each of the three different strands of English mba essay review service Language Arts offered, in a western Canadian high school, were represented on the survey. It should be noted that the English Language Arts class that was checked off on the survey was the course in which the students were enrolled when the surveys were filled out. Some of the students indicated verbally that they had taken more than one English Language Arts course in grade 1 1 and grade 12. UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT Reliability and Validity Creswell and Plano Clark (2007) describe the way in which researchers determine the reliability and validity of a survey instrument. They suggest that researchers formulate a questionnaire using data from focus groups in a pilot study format to verify validity of the research instrument. The focus group members are then asked to evaluate the clarity of the questions to measure reliability.
If necessary, the questions are modified to improve clarity and the resulting questionnaire is used in another pilot study with new participants. In this study, I developed a survey instrument based on the research studies of high school writing environments.
The questions were generated from studies by Applebee (1981) and Hillocks (1986) who both independently studied high school writing.
A different focus group consisting of ten students was surveyed using the new survey instrument. The survey content was checked for inter-item reliability between the two focus groups.
The distribution of answers from the one hundred and forty-four participants who filled out the survey was consistent among students, and across schools, thus indicating the reliability of the survey instrument. External validity was established by employing the survey instrument mba essay review service in four different high schools to ensure a greater breadth of representation of the population. In addition, the transcripts from the individual interviews were returned to participants for member-checking in an effort to ensure that the transcripts were an accurate reflection of their experiences. Methodological triangulation was employed for validity by utilizing an explanatory design by which quantitative data was verified by the qualitative data. Triangulation using both quantitative and qualitative methods mba essay review service was used to increase the likelihood that the limitations of one method would be compensated for by the other. Data source triangulation was also employed to measure the internal validity of the qualitative data. This was accomplished by comparing the identified themes from each individual participant to the identified themes across all participants. Reliability of the quantitative survey was established by ensuring that the participants were given the same instructions for completing the survey, that they all received the same amount of time for completion, and that definitions were provided on the survey for any words that might have been problematic. Students were also instructed to ask for clarification of any terms or questions of which they were unsure. This study sought to maintain qualitative reliability through the use of an independent coder who coded the transcripts for themes and met with me to determine whether we had assigned the same codes to the interviews. UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT Chapter Summary The purpose of my study was to investigate the challenges faced by first-year students as they negotiated the transition from the writing environment of high school to the writing environment of university.
In order to do that, it was important that I had the opportunity to interview the same students about their perceptions of both the high school writing environment and the first- year university writing environment, and allow them to report on the similarities and differences between the two.