Mba application essay writing service
The introduction of a new spe- cies (however marvellous and inexplicable some the- orists may choose to imagine it) is not a solitary occurrence. It reappears constantly in the lapse of geological ages. But a series indicates a principle of regularity and law, as much in organic as in inorganic changes.
The event is part of a re- gularly ordained mechanism of the evolution of the existing world out of former conditionSj and as much subject to regular laws as any changes now taking place. That new species should be subject to exactly the same general laws of structure, growth, nutrition, and all other functions of organic life, and yet in the single instance of their mode of birth or origin should constitute exceptions to all physical law, is an incongruity so preposterous that no inductive mind can for a moment entertain it. It must have been as truly subject to pre-arranged laws as any case of ordinary reproduction.
Lyell expressly includes lapse of time as an element among the conditions which he lays down in that grand maxim, worthy to have occurred in the " Novum Organon " " When we are unable to ex- plain the movements of past changes, it is always more probable that the difficulty arises from our ignorance of all the existing agents, or all their pos- sible effects in an indefinite lapse of time, than that 362 PHILOSOPHY OF CEEATION. But some questions are involved in the present in- quiry, which depend on a more particular reference to points of pure physiology, and to these the present section relates. He inclined, moreover, very strongly to the idea of in- vestigating organised structures on the principle. Hilaire, in proposing the principle of " unity of composition " as that on which alone a philosophical investigation of organised structures ought to be built, was strongly opposed to the followers of Cu- vier, especially in reference to the unphilosophical use of the appeal to final causes, in accordance with what has been already explained. If we look at the former question in a purely Principle of unity of scientific point of view, it amounts to the inquiry, compo- sition. So, again, the abortive teeth of the young whale are of no use except to prove its relationship with terrestrial mammalia. Unity of plan is adhered to in other cases where only one or two parts are developed, and the rest are merely ru- dimentary, or even altogether deficient, but no new part or formation is added. Nothing is made in vain if it be only made to preserve unity of system. The view of design has been contracted by the adoption of the mba application essay writing service false analogy of machines, in which unity of plan is not an object.
With regard to the principle of et unity of com- 368 PHILOSOPHY OF CREATION. Enlarged position" itself, some general and vague notions unity of of the uniformity of plan pervading animal struc- tion. But it was reserved for Owen to give the full elucidation and establishment of these views, and to supply a detailed demonstration of a principle so. The research remained to be fully followed out by others : and as each of the great divisions of animal life the Vertebrata, Articulata, Mollusca, and Radiata had been shown to have separately a plan and an archetype of its own, the question which then arose was Can these four great rudimentary plans be shown to have a yet more comprehensive relation? Can they be in- cluded under any one common and yet more elevated generalisation? It has been in carrying out this " developmental method" of comparison that the labours of sub- sequent inquirers in this field have succeeded in the full establishment, in detailed anatomical ex- amination, of the great idea of unity of composition : and what was at first little more than a philosophical romance, has in their hands risen to the rank of a demonstrated science.
Analogy of The investigations of Professor Owen forcibly vertebrate and inver- elucidate, not only the correspondence traceable be- tebrate classes. According to the distinction usually maintained in natural history, a species is not merely the logical subdivision of a genus, but implies the idea of dis- tinctive characteristics derived from a parent, and the reproduction of like individuals : it involves, not only the consideration of type, but of descent. Huxley I am indebted for a valuable original sketch of these investigations, from which, by his permission, I am enabled to present to the reader a very copious extract in the Appendix.
But it is a subject on which nothing is known as to the real causes which may give rise to such changes, and on which, therefore, it is clearly unwarrantable to dogmatise, or to reason upon such failure as if it were a necessary law. There are also cases in which varieties have been ally perma- found to continue so long, and to maintain so com- n pletely distinct a character, that it has become diffi- cult, if not impossible, to determine whether they do not constitute a sub-species. And so far as any speculation can be carried on a subject so little under- stood, it would seem most probable that wherever such permanency has been attained, there is always some peculiarity in external conditions which has been the determining cause for the perpetuation of B B 4 376 PHILOSOPHY OF CREATION. Perma- nence of certain species ac- companied by changes in others.
It is there- fore a fair inference that, if the favourable conditions were continued, and the variety mba application essay writing service were locally isolated from the rest of the species, it would become a per- manent type or species. Within certain limits we observe species fixed at the present day: we have, in some instances, proofs from historical monuments and preserved re- mains that they have not altered within very high limits of antiquity. Again, it is the fact that there are at present Difficulty of marking numerous instances in which naturalists are at is- s P eclfic dis - tinctions. The distinctions admitted as those of species are indeed in some cases much more minute than in other mba application essay writing service instances, those considered to mark only varieties.
The American butterfly the (Vanesso Atalanta) is held to be a distinct species, yet its characteristic is only a single spot on the wing.
Nevertheless, the entire black skin of the Negro and the white of the European mark only varieties. In a report formally put forth by the British Association, it is expressly set clown as a DESIDERA- TUM to discover some sure mode of distinguishing real species from local varieties. Carpenter : " The uncertainty of the limits of species is daily becoming more and more evident, and every naturalist is aware that a very large number of races are usually considered as having a distinct origin, when they are nothing more than permanent varieties of a common stock. But if such " permanent varieties " present cha- racters so constant, the real bearing of the question is evident, Why may not other or all " reputed species " have once originated in the same way? And here, indeed, another somewhat material increase in number of question arises : as discoveries and explorations ex- species. It has been stated on good authority that by the Keai num- recent progress of research the number of known species in- finite.
Yet suffi- The close approximation in character between dent prac-.