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Hence, as well as the personal gains for participating teachers, the EPD scheme nurtured teachers who were in a better position to contribute to the school as a whole and who expressed a greater likelihood that they would remain in teaching for some years to come.

Having traced the emergence of EPD effects in this way, it is possible to appreciate the potential of a grassroots approach to professional development. The transmission of effects starts with the immediate recipient of EPD, the teacher, before transferring to their pupils, their colleagues, the school and also to the wider teaching profession. In cases where EPD did not capitalise fully on its potential, it would seem that problems were encountered where the constituent elements of EPD - the teacher, the school (including the mentor) and the LEA - were out of alignment. Equally, total autonomy in the absence of any support meant that teachers would struggle to navigate their way through the range of options available to them. Schools needed to be factored into the equation - both to provide support to teachers and to capitalise on the professional progress made by these staff. Appropriate involvement by all key players was, i need to buy a research paper therefore, critical in maximising the impact of EPD - where it functioned most effectively, teacher, schools and the LEA all contributed to its implementation.

The EPD scheme as documented in this report was discontinued after the three-year pilot. Looking into the future, however, it is possible to extrapolate some very valuable lessons from the experience of the pilot for increasing the impacts of professional development for teachers early in their careers. Participants commended highly the levels of autonomy offered 124 CONCLUSION through EPD and the opportunity to direct their own professional learning. Additionally, where teachers received support from a mentor and the school, the impact of the scheme was boosted further. These, then, might be seen as the transferable features of the EPD scheme, which having been identified, could be utilised in future professional development activities. What should not be overlooked though, is that the EPD scheme, as a concept, did offer something unique. During interviews, teachers would frequently praise the extra investment and thought in their professional development that the EPD pilot represented. Furthermore, analysis of the EPD and comparative sample suggested that this could be a factor in the greater likelihood of EPD teachers remaining in the profession. Indeed, a key difference between the EPD teachers and those in the comparative sample, drawn from schools outside the pilot LEA, was the level of morale reported. Thus, the very existence of a dedicated, funded scheme specifically for the professional development of second and third year teachers was, in itself, crucial to the outcomes derived from EPD. To conclude, this evaluation has chronicled the success of the EPD pilot scheme. Given its discontinuation, it is important to consider what lessons might be carried forward to inform subsequent policies and practices aimed at supporting teachers at the outset of their careers and - given the strength of the outcomes to emerge from the pilot - perhaps all teachers. Based on the experience of the EPD scheme, amongst the key factors i need to buy a research paper associated with effective professional development were: autonomy for teachers, mentoring, a school ethos that embraces the professional development of its staff and an LEA role in support and promotion. In the absence of the scheme itself, these are the attributes that would perhaps benefit from particular attention, so the philosophy of EPD can be used to nurture and develop new cohorts of teachers entering the profession.

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The objectives of the analysis were to compare the relative cost- effectiveness of the approaches undertaken do my college paper by each of the 12 LEAs involved in the pilot and to i need to buy a research paper account for differences in cost-effectiveness. It was not the objective to conclude whether the EPD scheme as a whole offers value for money.

This outcome would require a cost-benefit analysis to be undertaken, in which the benefits of EPD would have to be measured in monetary terms. The first outlines the methods used to undertake the CEA, including the data collection methods for both costs and effectiveness.

The second section reviews the expenditure patterns of the 12 LEAs with respect to the EPD pilot. Finally, the fourth section aims to account for differences in cost-effectiveness between LEAs.

This section also highlights that care must be taken when interpreting the findings reported here. Owing to the confidential nature of the data presented in Appendix 1 , the LEAs have been anonymised. The letters A-L are used to identify the authorities, but the alphabetical sequence does not reflect any particular ordering of the LEAs. In applying CEA in a comparison of different pilot approaches, the aim is to identify the approach that offers the best value for money (i.

As the name suggests, CEA requires that data be collected on both costs and effects. In the current study, both costs and effects data refer to the second year of the EPD pilot i.

Data on costs was collected at LEA-level, through interviews with the key LEA personnel and analysis of supporting documentation. Such data collection may appear unnecessary as the EPD scheme allocated an identical amount for each second and third year teacher in each LEA and detail on these allocations had been provided to the research team by the DfES. However, there are a number of reasons why LEA-level data collection was necessary: 126 APPENDICES 1. These funds generally came from other budget centres within an LEA although one LEA used money from a community initiative. Owing to circumstances beyond their control, LEAs may not have allocated all of their EPD funding in the current academic year (e. Actual teacher numbers i need to buy a research paper within LEAs showed some variation from provisional numbers used by the DfES in their allocations of EPD funding. This issue affected LEAs in both possible directions. Some LEAs (seven) had more funding than teachers to allocate this to, while others (two) had more teachers than were accounted for in their funding allocation. In order to ensure the validity of the results, actual teacher numbers should be used in the CEA.

Finally, collecting data on costs at LEA level allows an analysis of expenditure patterns to be undertaken. This analysis may help to account for some of the differences in cost-effectiveness between LEAs. Data have therefore been collected on both income and expenditure for each LEA. Two measures of effectiveness were applied as outcomes in the CEA. Both of these were taken from items in the year 2 questionnaire returned by a sample of 1,189 teachers spread across the 12 EPD pilot LEAs. Five of the twelve LEAs made the full teacher allocation available to EPD teachers, while the remaining seven LEAs top-sliced a proportion of the teacher allocation for example, to provide LEA-funded training for mentors or LEA-funded EPD opportunities and activities for participating teachers. Table 22 provides a summary of how the LEAs managed their allocations. This figure shows the percentage of total expenditure accounted for by each of five following categories.

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