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OvexdXX, the data show that curriculum integration of academic and career-related learning is occurring in a substantial number of case study high schools. The types of curriculum integration strategies being used vary across case study and non-case study LPs.

The most common strategies used are those O 12 V that require limited amounts of time, thesis help services resources, and collaboration, such as individual teachers developing their own contextual learning i need help writing my essay units or implementing state-provided materials that use contextual learning approaches. Less common strategies that clearly require significant resources include team teaching for academic and career-technical education teachers and block scheduling to create more time for contextual and project-based instruction. Nonetheless, a very positive overall finding about curriculum integration is that it is reaching different kinds of schools and i need help writing my essay students (e. That is, few consistent patterns regarding curriculum integration by school characteristics were observed across LPs, indicating that curriculum integration is not limited to particular types of schools and students. New Graduation Requirements, Standards, and Opportunities for Certification.

As a school reform strategy, STC calls for students to meet higher levels of achievement and skills. This entails establishing rigorous academic and workplace readiness standards and providing opportunities for students to be recognized for attaining important skills. Teachers and administrators believe that changes in graduation or curriculum requirements (e. Across LPs, experienced teachers and administrators from schools with a high level of STC implementation believe that STC can help provide an impetus to raise academic standards. This observation points to the importance of professional development as a means of increasing understanding and support for STC. Not surprisingly, the greatest involvement of ernployers is at the high school level. Employers tend to participate most in low-intensity career awareness activities that require them to invest relatively limited resources. Barriers to employer involvement include lack of employer time and resources, frequent employee turnover, and the corporate bureaucracy that employers and employees must work through to secure permission to participate in STC activities. Despite these barriers, the future of business involvement in STC appears promising. In fact, many employers report they would increase their participation if schools would ask. In contrast to employers, the case study LPs reported very limited involvement by labor organizations in STC activities, possibly reflecting conflicting viewpoints on STC goals. The involvement of community-based organizations (CBOs) in STC shows yet a different pattern. Occasionally CBOs serve as LP leaders, but more often they only have limited presence in STC efforts.

Still, all 13 case study LPs reported at least some involvement with CBOs. Specifically, all 13 LPs report connections to community colleges, either by reference to a specific community college or to community college-based programs such as articulation agreements and dual credit or enrollment agreements.

In contrast, connections with four-year colleges are less common.

Despite the prevalence of secondary-postsecondary relationships, data suggest that many of the relationships reflect pre-STC connections rather than new, innovative strategies (such as K-16 sequencing) and are difficult to attribute directly to STC as opposed to other initiatives such custom essay cheap as Tech Prep or University of California A-G admissions requirements.

However, findings indicate that STC does provide a rationale and structure that can support existing connections between secondary and postsecondary institutions. Specifically, administrators and teachers believe that STC can serve as a catalyst or vehicle for forging connections between secondary and postsecondary education and that STC may be changing student attitudes about going to college.

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Similarly, employers see STC as providing exposure for some students who may not have considered going to a community college or a four-year college and helping istudents make academic connections between what they learn in K-12 and their postsecondary education. In summary, cormections between STC partners appear durable, but can be strengthened. All the case study LPs report that involvement of businesses, labor organizations, CBOs, and postsecondary institutions would likely stay the same or increase in the future. Interestingly, across all types of partners, it appears that the relationships that existed prior to STC are ones that are reported as most likely to continue. How HAS STC Affected Student Preparation for Postsecondary Education and Career Entry? High schools throughout the state have responded to this flexible STC model by introducing a wide variety of configurations of STC activities. Some offer a full range of career awareness and exploration activities and enroll some proportion of students in career-focused curricula. Other schools have largely confined their STC efforts to low-intensity career awareness activities. Students have responded to the STC options provided by their schools by participating in varying combinations of STC activities. Students who participate more extensively in these STC , activities will display better high school academic performance records and display higher postsecondary enrollment rates. Among students who choose not to continue their education immediately after high school, those who participate more extensively in various STC activities while in high school will. Many California high schools offer a variety of career awareness and career exploration activities and involve some students in some type of career-focused curriculum. However, the preponderance of schools in this study have adopted only career awareness activities as a widespread and consistent part of the high school experience they deliver to all or most students. As a result, like any other incremental, educational improvement strategy, STC can be expected to affect students gradually over a period of time and to produce some effects that are stronger and more consistent than others. Conceptual model of STC participation and student outcomes This conceptual model was used to structure the analyses of student outcomes. The major findings of these statistical analyses are as follows. Specifically, students with more intense STC participation were more likely to know about and value career- related activities at their schools and to feel prepared for future employment.

Most students in this study appear to be confident about reaching their career goals irrespective of their STC participation. Students generally report that STC activities have made school more interesting and helped them understand the importance of excelling in their studies. Career awareness activities, in particular, can play an important role in helping students see the value of high academic achievement. Moreover, findings from the PLUS studies indicate that STC participation can have positive effects on student attendance as well. That is, across LPs, STC participation was found not to systematically affect preparation for postsecondary education, enrollment in postsecondary education, or employment after graduation.

An examination of individual PLUS case study data, however, indicates that some LPs found positive effects were foxmd using analytic models with variables specific to that LP, or analyses that examined outcomes separately for some groups. Thus, there is suggestive evidence that STC may have a positive effect on preparation for postsecondary education.

For example, in two PLUS LPs, students who self-reported participating in a career-focused curriculum had a greater likelihood of fulfilling the University of i need help writing my essay California A-G admissions requirements compared to those who did not report participation.

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