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This assignment asked her to develop her basic definition by relating it to personal experience. The case studies in this article examine what happens when students face new writing tasksand try to engage in rhetorical planning, planning that relates content ERIC COLLABORATIVK PLANNING: CONCEPTS, PROCESSES, AND AsSlGNTvlENTS 71 knowledge to the rhetorical concerns of purpose, audi- ence, and specific discourse conventions. The transcripts of these planning sessions allow us to observe their con- versations and eavesdrop on both their patterns of interaction and the problems that they encounter. The participants in this study all faced writing tasks essay writing services scams that were largely new to them. The high school students, of whom Alicia is one, often wrote essays and reports, but the extended definition paper called for them to combine their own experiences with informa- tion that they had gathered from sources.
In contrast, the thiid-year college students whose experiences I will describe had a great deal more writing experience than the high school students, but their course also intro- duced them to new genres for writing (e. In short, each of these writers found themselves in situations like the one that hire someone to write my research paper Alicia faced in the excerpts above. That is, they often had to transform topic knowledge, recast collections of information according to the hire someone to write my research paper constraints of new writing tasks that specified new purposes, audiences, and discourse conventions. Their planning sessions expand our understanding of how students begin to transform information according to rhetorical concerns.
Indeed, several studies suggest that the ability to deal with content knowledge in terms of rhetorical concerns is a critical difference between ex- perienced and inexperienced writers. Inexperienced writers are often fairly good at creating what Flower and Hayes call plans to say (con- tent generation and arrangennent) but do not attempt or havedifficulty with plans to do (rhetorical planning). For these writers, planning often means making a list of chunks of information to be included in a text, much as Alicia did in the eariier excerpt. Certainly, gathering and organizing information is an important part of the writing process. Often as they face new and more complex writing tasks, inexpe- rienced writers need to move beyond arranging infor- mation and develop an awareness that writing can do more than report information. A study conducted by Burtis, Bereiter, Scardamalia, and Tetroc suggests that the ability to distinguish between plans to say and plans to do may be at least in part a developmental issue. As age increased, students were more able to distinguish between plan- ning what they wanted to say in their texts and making rhetorical plans, plans that consider audience, pur- pose, and discourse conventions. Scardamalia and Bereiter characterize the differ- ence between the knowledge-based planning of inex- perienced writers and the rhetorical planning of expe- rienced writers as knowledge telling versus knowledge transformation. In contrast to experienced writers who transform their content to meet rhetorical constraints, the elementary school students in this study often relied on a "what nexr strategy, which prompted them to simply add the next piece of information.
In short, the work of these process-tracing re- searchers suggests that the ability to transform knowl- edge into plans that are sensitive to rhetorical concerns may be a least in part a developmental issue. These shidies suggest that by junior high student writers may be able to engage in rhetorical planning when prompted to do so.
Flower, Schriver, Carey, Hayes, and Haas have proposed that three major types of planning can contribute to the writing of expert writers. Based on detailed analysis of planning by expert and novice adult writers, they argue that planning may be knowl- edge-driven (cf. Thus, both expert and novice writers may successfully follow a knowledge-driven plan or schema, such as narrative, to generate a text- given that the schema or knowledge structure fits the task. To The case study students each worked with a help them, she prepared a dittoed list of sample ques- partner in the collaborative planning sessions. She intended these questions only as ex- them to text.
Thehighschoolshidentehadtwoplanning productive for either sessions on the same assignment.
In the tial planning session and then agam about two weeks fallowing excerpt from their first planning session, after their fi nal planning session. Maria: Peers, I just told you that, Alicia: What kind of language is appropriate for this audience?
Maria: How long did she say this is supposed to be? Craig and Ed do much the same thing in their first session.
This excerpt illustrates that Craig and Ed nomi- nally play the game that they think their teacher is asking them to play, but they are either unable or unwilling to use the session to explore and elaborate their ideas for writing. Both pairs of students move through the dittoed questions without stopping to develop their ideas or consider alternatives. For both pairs of writers, rhetorical concepts such as audience remain undeveloped. In these initial sessions the pairs of writers do littleknowledge transformation or rhetorical planning. They review their basic plans for content (knowledge telling) and use the rhetorical prompts in a perfunctory way.
The best part of the session, Craig reports, was when the teacher, who had noHced the trouble they were having, came back to read his paper withher "war paint on. Thus, in this planning session, neither writer considered major changes for his text, and as supporters neither writer used the collaborative planning prompts to help the other weigh rhetorical issues or consider alternatives. Both Craig and Alida had partici- responded that she is not sure that she should spend pated in a number of classroom activities to prepare much time in the paper talking about herself. However, by the time of her first memberontheboardyoucangofromageneralwriting planning session, Alicia had already wntten and re- to a specific. In contrast, Craig wrote a anewgoalforrevision,tomakethegeneralpartsmaller sketchypreliminarydraftduringdasswhiletheteacher and then "get bigger on the spedfics. As Maria discussed tancetoengageinconstnictiveplarmingisnotsurprising what she wasplanning to say, Alida noticed that Maria given his typical writing style. For example, hire someone to write my research paper Alida said, "Oh, well, is this in his preliminary interview that his normal pattern for going to be like an argument? He rarely talks to dassmates about his ideas As the session continues, it becomes clear to Ali- for writing, cia that Maria was missing the point of the assignment: Alicia is quite different from Craig both in the Maria was writing an aigumentative paper rather than hire someone to write my research paper sustained effort that she puts into drafting papers and an extended definition.