Higher english critical essay help
Acknowledgements The research reported here has been financed by the Swedish Council for Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences.
Chapter Six Learning from Lectures VIVIEN HODGSON University of Lancaster Introduction Within higher education, lectures continue to be a dominant feature of many courses, and their prominence is reflected in the large body of research that has been carried out on lecturing as a method of teaching.
The study described in this chapter was an attempt to look at lectures as they are experienced by students.
In the main, empirical studies have shared the single aim of assessing the relative effectiveness of lectures as a teaching method. One limitation is that the focus of investigations of teaching has been virtually exclusively on method, in isolation from setting. As McKeachie (1978) observes, a college course cannot be divorced from the total college culture: a method of teaching greeted enthusiastically by students in one institution may be less than warmly received in another.
The fact that the findings of a large number of these studies have been inconclusive can be seen as a consequence of their narrowness of approach. Where the attempt has been made, however, the picture presented is a rather different one. Method looms less large, and instead the focus shifts towards factors such as attitude, enthusiasm, involvement and the qualities of the relationship between lecturers and students. One of the many questions Marris put to students was what they wanted from lectures and what in their experience distinguished good lectures from bad. But, perhaps even more usefully, he can provide a more personal context, showing why the subject interests and excites him, how he has used it in his own experience, how it relates to problems whose importance his audience already understands. From this, the student can more easily imagine how he himself could use it: he develops his own context of motives for mastering a problem. As attention has shifted, therefore, towards the experiences of the participants themselves, the teacher-student relationship has begun to occupy the foreground of discussion.
Background to the Study The students who took part in higher english critical essay help the study were taking one of three different undergraduate courses: a second-year social science research methods course, a final-year microbiology course, and a first-year applied physics and energy course. Information on the perceptions of the different groups of students was collected by informal interviewing throughout each course together with an end-of-course questionnaire designed to tap into comments and concerns expressed during the interviews. Because of the numbers of students involved, a sample was selected from each of the courses. The students were chosen on the basis of their response to a questionnaire which sought to identify students who thought that interpersonal qualities of the lecturer (e. For each course, between two and six students were chosen from those who were apparently most or least influenced by personal factors, together with a further two or three students who seemed to be mid-way on that particular dimension.
In higher english critical essay help the current study lectures were recorded and extracts played back to students within 24 hours. Recall sessions took place with individual students, so that the replies given could be probed in depth. On average eight extracts from a fifty-minute lecture were chosen and these were each played to the students who were then asked to recall their thoughts or feelings at the time of the extract. In total, 48 recall sessions were carried out with the 31 students. In the recall sessions students both described what they were doing and thinking at the time of the custom writing paper service extract and explained why they thought they had responded in the way they had. The example below shows how LEARNING FROM LECTURES 95 students can respond in markedly different ways to the same lecture extract. It can be seen from the above example that the two students are each experiencing the relevance of the lecture content in different ways. The first student is thinking about the lecture content in terms of assessment, in relation to an essay that he had done and whether or not he had included the particular point being made by the lecturer.
The second student is thinking more about the meaning of the content, and what the implication might be of what the lecturer is saying. This second student seems to be thinking about the lecture content in higher english critical essay help terms of his own understanding of it and the meaning it has for him. He is therefore experiencing the relevance of the content intrinsically, whilst the experience of the first student, whose thoughts are directed towards assessment, is by contrast extrinsic. Thus the student is thinking about the next piece of work she has to do.
In higher english critical essay help both this and the earlier example, where the student was thinking about an essay he had recently completed, the students have a specific extrinsic demand in mind and consider how they have tackled or might tackle the task set. In other cases, the students seem to have no particular demand in mind, nor are they thinking about the content in a way meaningful to themselves. Here the student seems only to think or recognize that what was being said might potentially be useful or relevant, the experience is much more general in nature. The sole reason, apparently, for writing something down is because the lecturer has written it on the board and it must therefore be important. And it is important, one must presume, as something students may subsequently be assessed or examined on.