High school essay help
Flower, Schriver, Carey, Hayes, and Haas have proposed that three major types of planning can contribute to the writing of expert writers. Based on detailed analysis of planning by expert and novice adult writers, they argue that planning may be knowl- edge-driven (cf. Thus, both expert high school essay help and novice writers may successfully follow a knowledge-driven plan or schema, such as narrative, to generate a text- given that the schema or knowledge structure fits the task. To The case study students each worked with a help them, she prepared a dittoed list of sample ques- partner in the collaborative planning sessions. She intended these questions only as ex- them to text. Thehighschoolshidentehadtwoplanning productive for either sessions on the same assignment. In the tial planning session and then agam about two weeks fallowing excerpt from their first planning session, after their fi nal planning session.
Maria: Peers, I just told you that, Alicia: What kind of language is appropriate for this audience? Maria: How long did she say this is supposed to be? Craig and Ed do much the same thing in their first session.
This excerpt illustrates that Craig and Ed nomi- nally play the game that they think their teacher is asking them to play, but they are either unable or unwilling to use the session to explore and elaborate their ideas for writing. Both pairs of students move through the dittoed questions without stopping to develop their ideas or consider alternatives.
For both pairs of writers, rhetorical concepts such as audience remain undeveloped. In these initial sessions the pairs of writers do littleknowledge transformation or rhetorical planning. They review their basic plans for content (knowledge telling) and use the rhetorical prompts in a perfunctory way.
The best part of the session, Craig reports, was when the teacher, who had noHced the trouble they were having, came back to read his paper withher "war paint on. Thus, in this planning session, neither writer high school essay help considered major changes for his text, and as supporters neither writer used the collaborative planning prompts to help the other weigh rhetorical help writing a term paper issues or consider alternatives.
Both Craig and Alida had partici- responded that she is not sure that she should spend pated in a number of classroom activities to prepare much time in the paper talking about herself. However, by the time of her first memberontheboardyoucangofromageneralwriting planning session, Alicia had already wntten and re- to a specific. In contrast, Craig wrote a anewgoalforrevision,tomakethegeneralpartsmaller sketchypreliminarydraftduringdasswhiletheteacher and then "get bigger on the spedfics.
As Maria discussed tancetoengageinconstnictiveplarmingisnotsurprising what she wasplanning to say, Alida noticed that Maria given his typical writing style. For example, Alida said, "Oh, well, is this in his preliminary interview that his normal pattern for going to be like an argument? He rarely talks to dassmates about his ideas As the session continues, it becomes clear to Ali- for writing, cia that Maria was missing the point of the assignment: Alicia is quite different from Craig both in the Maria was writing an aigumentative paper rather than sustained effort that she puts into drafting papers and an extended definition.
As soon trying to argue a point and that she would have to cite as she has a topic for a paper, Alida begins writing. Finally, writes out a draft of everything that comes to her nrund.
Alida suggested, "You know I think it would be, if you Then she writes another and another and often yet just write the standard definition of evolution...
Although Alida and Maria did not explidtly Craig and Alida make an interesting pair for identify many of the issues that they discussed as comparison because of the differences in their writing spedfic discourse conventions, they cleariy used a va- styles and experiences. Craig brings writing abili ty but riety of discourse conventions to select and develop limited sodal interaction about writing as compared to topic knowledge. As the first set of high school essay help planning wide range of discourse moves (in their case both sessions illustrate, both pairs of students needed to genre-level and task-spedfic text structures) and must move beyond their checklist approach to see planning be understood according to their function within the as something that they could use for their own pur- context of a given writing task. Collaborative Planning: Concepts, Processes, and Assignments 75 ERIC 7 J College Case database coursework Studies: Nancy and Fred Unlike the high school students, the college writ- ers, Nancy, Fred, and their partners, made good use of. Their planning sessions show both a consistent concem for rhetorical issues across the three writing assignments and flexibility in managing the interplay between de- veloping content knowledge and rhetorical planning. The most striking feature of these planning ses- sions is the variety of ways in which these students handle the interplay between managing topic infonna- tion and addressing rhetorical concerns. What emerges from these three portraits is not a single model for successful rhetorical planning but a collection of work- able patterns. Portrait Four shows two patterns for transforming topic knowledge: one for reducing and focusing abundant topic knowledge and the other for evaluating the viability of topics. Portrait Fiveillustrates the power of audience to build a sense of rhetorical exigence, and Portrait Six illustrates that for some writing tasks only minimal knowledge transformation is needed. Portrait high school essay help Four: The Revolving Door of Topic Knowledge The first assignment that these writers planned with their partners was a news article.
For this assign- ment, the planning sessions for the two pairs of writers were very different. However, as the discussion below will illustrate, neither pair of writers allowed their discus- sion of topic knowledge to become circular.