Help writing my college essay
Thus we find, for example, that structure can exist in both holistic and atomistic forms. One of the techniques adopted was to arrange the factual and descriptive information about a subject on a series of cards, each one labelled with a description of its content.
Putting the information together would enable students to work out underlying principles (for example, of biological classification). Students were required to work out those principles (i. The organization of the subject was essentially hierarchical, but students could work in any way they liked, for example, from general points to specific ones, or vice versa, or across the topics.
For the other, they built up the framework step by step from the details to the more general principles.
The two strategies achieved equivalent outcomes because that was required help writing my college essay by the task. Thus there appeared to be two distinct strategies, ultimately equivalent in outcome, but very different in process. This methodology is fundamentally different from that used by Svensson and Marton. Pask, like the information processing theorists, takes the structure of the material as given, and investigates what students do with that informa- tion, or how they process it. However, help writing my college essay in parallel with this experimental work, Pask also developed a theoretical framework, which allows us to interpret his findings and apply them to more familiar learning tasks. Pask developed Conservation Theory as a way of describing the logical structure of what an individual (person or even machine) must be to be able to learn, and what the nature of the relation is between this 138 the experience of learning individual and the help writing my college essay subject matter to be learned. The second basic principle is that the individual must come to know a subject domain, must operate on it (manipulate its elements according to some plan or procedure) and must obtain feedback on the result of these operations.
An obvious parallel is global theory help writing my college essay generating localized experiments in scientific method — the prototypical way of learning about a domain. The two theoretical frameworks we may call A and B, may be different from each other, but must be operationally equivalent. When both are used to generate an output through the manipulation of lines and points, they will both generate circles. That alternative must then be tested by generating corresponding operations on the subject matter domain and checking that they produce the same results as the previous framework. The vertical pathways in the diagram may also be used to construct frameworks, as in scientific method. The three levels in the diagram indicate different aspects of the subject matter. From this purely theoretical account, Pask derived two styles of learning, both of which are necessary for understanding, i. These are theoretical descriptions of learning, but they may nonethe- less be applicable to the reality of student learning.
Ten of the students were interviewed about three of their assignments, each one a problem-solving task — in chemistry (reaction kinetics), crystallography (stereographic projection) and metallurgy (equilibrium diagrams). Each teachback lasted 5-10 minutes and was recorded and transcribed for later analysis. The analysis was done by inspection, looking for examples of statements that described either operation learning (statements of rules or procedures) or comprehension learning (descriptions of concepts or interpretation of operational constructions). The analysis was checked by two judges who achieved an average of 82 per cent agreement in assigning these categories. These students are clearly using operations — procedures and rules — but they are not operating at the level of the theoretical framework of equilibrium diagrams. The focus of their attention is on isolated details of the subject matter, and operations are carried out on the basis of selection from a standard repertory of techniques rather than by recourse to theory.
Evidence of learning at the more theoretical level can be found but in this study it was rare. One such example is still a description of structural changes, but here the meaning of the diagram is related to the theoretical concept of the crystal pattern.
It is thus not simply a description of the existence of the phases as areas on the diagram, it places that interpretation in its theoretical context. The students were asked to work out the sequence of phases for particular alloys using the diagram. This involves them also in interpreting shapes and sections of the graph. LEARNING FROM PROBLEM SOLVING 141 In some types of material, a lot of them when they freeze, metals that is, you get two distinct crystal patterns. In a particular metal, you could end up with one phase with dendrites in it. This student is offering an explanation of the theory to support his identification of the two phases of the diagram, and this is a form of high level comprehension learning, i.
All students were found to use both styles of learning, but in varying proportions and, more strikingly, in varying proportions depending on the task. For example, on the stereographic projection task, all the students showed a high incidence of operation learning, whereas on the Equilibrium Diagram task, only half the students did so, with half biased more towards comprehension learning. This unequal distribution of styles among different problem-solving tasks is strongly indicative of a task effect on choice of learning style, and this help writing my college essay will be discussed further in the next section. This research had thus demonstrated that the theoretical constructs of operation learning and comprehension learning also help to describe problem-solving tasks in everyday studying.
We can begin to make sense of the relations between these constructs if we consider again their definitions. Operation learning concerns the manipulation of the concepts and objects in the subject matter domain. Comprehension learning concerns their meaning, or description. The global level involves integration of the descriptions into a theoretical framework: the local level does not. If we consider approach, with its intentional component, as a preliminary to style, it is then possible to suggest that the choice of approach affords the opportunity for one or other level of style to be implemented. For any particular problem, a student who is thinking deeply and holistically will be looking for meaning and will be able to attend to the global level of descriptions, whereas the student who is thinking atomistically will consider only the local components of the problem without seeking to integrate them meaningfully.
The effects of a surface approach, insofar as it involves the intention to reproduce, will be to produce low-level descriptions or unintegrated sets of operations. V J 142 THE EXPERIENCE OF LEARNING A deep approach may go through the initial stages of low-level operation learning, but only as a preliminary to the high-level integration of descriptions and operations into a full understanding of the subject-matter domain.