Help writing a college paper

Each step conquered is a very real and visible improvement which provides a powerful incentive to fresh effort.

The scales also provide a means help writing a college paper of comparing different classes of the same grade, different grades, different schools, or different school systems with respect to the quality of the work done help writing a college paper in teaching writing in them.

The use of the scale in school surveys will answer some of the most pressing questions in school administration, e. The facts obtained by a wide use of the scale in this fashion should lift these questions beyond the controversial stage and settle them once for all upon a scien- tific basis. It has been noted that both the Thorndike and Ayres scales, although constructed upon different principles, both measure the form or appearance of the writing rather than its legibil- ity. But an analysis of handwriting shows that its chief ele- ments are three in number, viz. The first two are those fac- tors which affect the reader, the last is concerned with the writer. If this is true, legibility is the most important single element in writing, and we should have some method of measuring this factor alone. At first glance, the obvious way of measuring legibility alone would be to measure the time required to read a speci- men as quickly as possible, and then to compute the time re- quired per letter. This, however, would not be accurate when a series of specimens containing the same material is to be measured, as increasing familiarity with the material would cause faster reading despite an actual decrease in legibility. The apparatus consists of a stop watch and a circular piece of cardboard, 20 cm. A card of this size was chosen because it would cover nearly all the writing of a given sample except what appeared.

The holes are just large enough to expose several letters, but not to show entire words or groups of words. The card is placed in any position on the sample to be measured, the number of letters exposed and the time to read them recorded. This is done a second and third time, the card being shifted for each repetition.

The average reading time per letter is then computed, and the speed help writing a college paper of this gives a reliable measure of the legibility of the writing. To meet the possible objection that the legibility of letters thrown out of their context is not closely enough correlated with the legibility of words in sensible context to ensure an accurate measurement of the latter by the former, Starch com- puted the time per letter required to read ten samples of hand- writing in context, and the time per letter required by the letter exposure method. Three determinations were made by both methods at intervals of about two weeks. In this way he found that the co-efficient of correlation between the two series of measurements was. That is, the legibility of let- ters is practically identical in relative order with the legibility of words in their context. The same test was made with the samples in the Ayres scale. This test showed an even higher co-efficient of correlation between the two series,. These tests demonstrate conclusively that the letter exposure method is a highly accurate means of measuring the legibility of a given sample of writing. The method of meas- uring legibility just described is based upon the time taken by an observer to read exposed letters. As long as the same observer does the measuring, there is no difficulty in making a direct comparison of results. If, for instance, the measurements of Starch are taken as a standard it is possible for all other observers to put their 81 results on a common basis with his help writing a college paper by measuring the samples given in the Thorndike scale and comparing them with the fol- lowing times of Starch : Reading Quality.

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Writing produced by laborious, inefficient movements cannot be produced rapidly. If it is desired to 82 measure the ease of production of thesis proposal writing a given group of writers, the best method is to have them write for a definite number of minutes, and then figure out the number of letters produced per minute. In a test of this nature certain precautions must be taken: (1) The material chosen for the test must be so thoroughly familiar to all the writers help writing a college paper that no one is handi- capped by a lack of knowledge of the material. In such a test Starch chose "Mary had a little lamb" as suitable material, for it could be written from memory without a copy or dic- tation to interfere with the natural speed. Two to three minutes is sufficient to obtain sufficient material for a fair measurement. In fact, it is best to let the class look upon it as a test of memory rather than writing, as in that case the ordinary writing of the child both in quality and in speed will be used. We may now summarize the foregoing discussion of the various methods of measuring efficiency in handwriting.

The best tool for measuring general merit is the Thorndike Scale, for legibility, the letter exposure method of Starch, for ease of production the computation of the number of letters writ- ten per minute. These three methods will measure adequately the three chief elements in writing. Starch made a survey of handwriting in the schools of Madison, using the three methods of measurement outlined in the preceding paragraphs. A specimen from each pupil in the ten schools of the system was obtained, a total of 2,190. These were procured at the end of the school year in order to make it possible to establish definite standards of attainment in handwriting for each grade. To each teacher the following typewritten instructions were given : 83 Writing Test. Each pupil is to write "Mary had a little lamb" repeatedly for two minutes. To get an accurate record of the time the teacher should see that each pupil is ready with pen and ruled paper. They should write as well as they can and without interruption at natural speed for two minutes, when the need help with essay teacher will give the signal to stop.

The speed, legibility and form of each sample was then measured. The speed is indicated in terms of so many letters per minute, the legibility in terms of reading time per letter, the form in the terms of the Thorndike scale. The combined results are given in the following tables. The different schools are indicated by letters at the left, the grades are numbered across the top.

The blank spaces are due to erroneous per- formance of the test in those particular grades.

Speed of writing in letters per minute, Grades Schools.

Legibility improves tremendously in the first two years, and then more gradually, reaching a maximum in the write my admission essay fourth year, after which there is no improvement. The tables show how accurate a comparison may be drawn between the work of the same grades in different schools. The weakness of the class is at once made clear and when recognized can be remedied. Further, class averages can be used to set average stand- ards of attainment for the various grades. Very evidently such definite standards are needed, not only in writing but in every school subject. With such standards and with adequate means of measuring efficiency any qualified person could go into a school room and measure the ability of individuals or of the class as a whole in any subject.

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