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This is especially the case given that the capacity for schools to sustain these new initiatives and the student academic engagement that flows from this is likely to be limited when current levels of special initiative funding are no longer available to these schools. It is also important to note that the effort put in by teachers can take its toll.
Notwithstanding this, the teachers in the case study schools were often stretched to capacity. It needs to be recognized that schools will not be able to maintain a stable complement of staff, and the institutional knowledge and culture they carry with them, if demands on teachers are stretched beyond reasonable limits.
If like schools are to emulate the success of the case study schools, four areas in particular that warrant critical consideration are: o Leadership o teacher quality o resources o sustainability. In louu ICSEPl schools it is essential that teachers develop the capacity to work in a respectful and inclusive ways with student and parent bodies.
Schools need to build teacher capacity to use sophisticated data management and monitoring systems that enable them to support the development of appropriate student learning trajectories. Teachers need a deep help with writing a thesis understanding of strategies for differentiated and explicit teaching, particularly in literacy and numeracy. Collegial relationships amongst teachers are essential to support their involvement in a whole of school approach to teaching and learning. Of equal importance is their capacity to share their teaching and learning responsibilities by working in can i pay someone to write my essay teams focused on the individual needs of their students in relation to the learning help with writing a thesis needs of the wider school community. Teachers need to be able to take a broad perspective, beyond their essay writer services classroom, when supporting the learning needs of students.
The case studies demonstrate that student centered learning communities require teachers to share responsibility for planning, for developing student centered pedagogy and for reviewing data to ensure that the learning trajectories of all students are maintained. This requires teachers to take on a professional learning journey in parallel with their students. The steps and processes involved in stimulating the necessary change processes and professional development are beyond the standard budget of most Iouj ICSEA schools. The special programs developed by these schools to address the high level of student need required more intensive staffing, specialist knouuledge, additional time for diagnostic assessment and the capacity to ujork tuith students using responsive pedagogical models.
Teachers uuere only able to build their capacity to address their professional needs in these areas uuhen their school leaders had been able to access funding through external sources and uuhen they uuorked in partnerships uuith other agencies.
In order to enable teachers to develop the necessary sophisticated diagnostic and monitoring skills they must have access to valid and reliable measurement instruments that can be used across curriculum. Most teachers also require training in using of such instruments, in managing the data and in understanding its implications for learning. In addition, school leaders need to develop the capacity of school staff to uuork uuith a uuhole of school data management system to track students and to support regular, monthly revieuus of student data.
The study identified a specific need for diagnostic tools for literacy and numeracy. This uuas a particular need in secondary schools uuhere there is a dearth of any measurement tools for literacy and numeracy at national, jurisdictional or school levels.
Lack of shared knouuledge about student literacy and numeracy needs across the curriculum impedes the capacity of secondary teachers to contribute to a help with writing a thesis uuhole of school approach to teaching and learning. Examples of appropriate types of professional development in case study schools included: o ICT knouuledge for curriculum, flexible teaching and data management o strategies to support use of higher order learning tasks o SMART NAPLAN planning o National Partnerships Leadership training o literacy and numeracy professional learning uuith specialists and coaches o case management uuriting o culture and pastoral care sessions o cultural auuareness professional development o the Positive Behavior for Learning (PBL) program o the restorative justice approach to behaviour management o the Dare to Lead program. The case studies indicate that continued external funding to sustain the initiatives necessary to support the changes in student academic engagement is unlikely. Therefore it is critical for schools to find mechanisms to embed the changes uuithin the capacity of staff and leaders to sustain the improved learning outcomes. The research team holds some concerns about the capacity of schools to fully maintain the integrity of the initiatives over a period time. The first is the natural staff and leadership turnover and subsequent loss of commitment and the neuu knotuledges that have developed uuith the support of external funding and expertise. The second is the uncertainty of the availability of external funding uuith changes in jurisdictional and national funding sources, and in their capacity to support the necessary initiatives. The third is the changing nature of challenges in louu ICSER schools that occur through changes in community needs and contexts. Schools such as these need ongoing and sustained support to address the natural cycles of change. A review of the targets and initiatives that have been instituted by State and Territory Departments of Education was also undertaken to provide the broader contextual framework for the study.
State and Territory Departments all require schools to monitor and report on aspects of student attendance, student performance and quality of schooling in line with the national agenda. This study of the 12 low ICSEA schools from all Australian jurisdictions has provided examples of the response of schools to the new government agenda. The case study schools have all aligned school processes and targets with the new national goals. They have used a synergy of strategies through a whole of school approach to impact positively on outcomes for students. A case management approach has built a school culture based on the belief that all students could achieve and improve their behaviour and learning.
This school culture reflected extensive use of data and shared information, and the monitoring of student learning trajectories has ensured that teachers are very aware when any one student underperforms. Each of the 12 schools demonstrated that their success in improving student academic engagement in schools uuas due to the synergy of the special initiatives they undertook.