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As the writer concentrates on the reader as well as on the writer, on a purpose beyond a grade, on text conven- tions that apply to the purpose, he or she laminates the final text. The reader, then, brings to the text his or her own concerns, thus adding more layers to the text. These questions and the skillful techniques of the supporter would help the planner to move from Windows Three and Four to Windows One and Two. The supporter also gains from this interaction because heor she might have some stirring of an idea for his or her writing as I show later in this paper. I tried to use several ap- proaches in presenting the concepts and terminology associated with collaborative planning. Figure 3 shows the various approaches I used in presenting collabora- tive planning to my classes.
There were no particular reasons behind the various approaches as I merely wanted to see what would work and what would not. As with collabora- tive planning, the program works best with partners, with the supporter asking the question and the planner responding orally before typing in the response. The writer is able to move into the different plan- ning areas help to do a research paper by clicking on whatever button he or she chooses. In Composition I, an elective open to Juniors and Seniors, I had writers with a range of writing abilities and seriousness of purpose.
Some were in the class to improve their writing, while others were there to satisfy an elective requirement. One of the foci of the course was to get writers to use concrete and sp)edfic detail or images or any one of a number of devices to make their papers more sub- stantial. Some of these writers interpreted using detail as nothing more than using another layer of generali- zation or adding superlative adjectives.
Several of the writers in Composition I and the Advanced Place- ment English class merely went through the motions of using collaborative planning. As a result, their plans were weak and unsubstantial. Obviously not all heuris- tics are suited for all writers, but writers need to find those that will allow the development of substantive plans. For thisassignment, they were to develop an article for a magazine which catered to high school students who knew nothing about anything. Each writer was to select a topic which he oi she knew intimately and write an article for this magazine. As the writers worked their way through the questions under the different planning areas, they did so with varying levels of involvement. Some answered the questions perfunctorily while others went beyond the literalness of the questions. Some responded with only rote, textbookish answers. For example, in re- sponse to the question, "Explain what sort of things readers will see in your paper and find interesting," the following two writers responded with different levels of involvement. To the question "What do you plan to do to get the kind of reaction you want from your readers? AH spelling and mechanical eriors appear in the drafts.
Sports are a great foctor in many peoples lives today. Athletics such as football, soccer, basketball and swimming are time consuming and take a great deal of concentration andahrd work. Most atheletes understand what it takes to be a winner, and do their best work to their fullest potential. People who do not have the greatest athletic ability often are great achievers because of their desire to win and do the best they can.
We read the "Cask of Amontillado" and looked at how Poe used specific and concrete detail to create and sustain certain moods. The writers selected two words that best described the mood of their bed- rooms.
In their writing, they were not to use these words, but had to use detail to convey these moods.
During this planning time, they had to tape record their sessions. The following dialogue between Michele and Louann illustrates a naturalness in the way Michdit handles the role of supporter. Michele: What are some ideas that a reader would expect you to say about your topic?
Compare that exchange to the one between Chip and Chris to which essay writing service is the best see a difference in questioning technique. Chip first asks one question from a prepared list of questions that the writers were given. He then asks a question of his own that is assignment related and then moves on to another question from the list. Chip does not try to lead Chris as Michele did with Louann but instead asks a perfunctory question. Chip: What are some things that reader would expect you say about your topic? Chris: Well I think many are about, you know, the same. They all basically have four walls, a ceiling, and a floor. The terseness of the exchange between Chris and Chip contrasts with the elaborating exchange between Michele and Louann. What is not noticeable in the transcript that is noticeable in listening to the tapes is the quality of the discussion. Michele and Louann are ha vinga conversation while Chip and Chris are record- ing a static dialogue. Michele and Louann had a seriousness of purpose that was not evident with Chris and Chip. I feel that this attitude, this seriousness of pur- pose, also helps the supporter to define cognitively his or her role. In most cases, this definition may be a more intuitive decision rather than a conscious one. In this sense, help to do a research paper I feel that Chip and Chris interpreted "sup- porter" to mean merely "Asker of Questions. The concept of metacomprehension is applicable here also.
Chris and Chipdidnotreallyunderstandwhataplanning session should be like or what a supporter was to do, but they thought they did.
Michele and Louann, on the other hand, behaved as if they knew what a planning session was to be like and what a supporter should doand their dialogue shows that they knew. As I listened to the help to do a research paper taped protocols of Michele and Louann, I started to get a sense of the symbiotic rela- tionship between a planner and a supporter.