Help me do my essay
Those two categories represented two different ways of relating arguments and conclusions about university pass rates. As far as the organization of the present example help me do my essay is concerned, the force or causal aspect is related either to velocity in the sense of motion or to change in velocity, i. The first mode of organization, based on motion as effect, represents an Aristotelian conception and the second, based on acceleration as effect, represents a Newtonian conception of motion.
The difference is one of the most important ones in the history of the science of physics.
The Newtonian conception, although it is more complex, is not more holistic. The complexity involves greater and better distinctions within the description of the whole. Thus, the Newtonian conception not only involves more complexity in terms of differentiation of more aspects or parts (like constant velocity in addition to acceleration as a special case of motion) but also better fidelity to the material organized. While this in no way exhausts the variation in important qualitative differences, these two differences can be considered to be the most important ones. It was for this reason that the concept of approach was introduced by Svensson (1976).
The concept emphasizes the possibilities of openness to and dependence on a given learning material as well as on the past experience of the individual. It was used in preference to the concept of process which emphasizes certain given forms or mechanisms by means of which material is processed. It was also used in contrast to the concept of strategy which sometimes seems to emphasize the dependence of interactions on predefined plans — something which is not prejudged but left open when using the concept of approach. This accords with a more general emphasis on the fundamentally creative nature of human activity. Learning through understanding The atomistic approach represents a type of skill which is restricted in terms of the learning which it makes possible. This skill means, at best, learning of parts if these are new to the learner. This is a severe restriction since the understanding of the main point or the significant meaning of a message or the fundamental nature of a phenomenon is dependent on holistic organization. A shift from an atomistic to a holistic approach thus constitutes the most significant of any improvements in understanding and learning. To learn to organize the content into a whole is the main problem of learning to learn.
However, we must also consider the fact that there is a great variation within both the atomistic and the holistic approaches. Within the atomistic approach to complex material, there is a variation in how atomistic the approach is. This variation corresponds to the degree of organization of parts.
The most atomistic approach means a memorization of very specific details. A less atomistic approach means the integration of details into bigger parts and into main parts. Such variations, of course, make a considerable difference to the understanding of the message or the phenomenon and to what might be learned by means of this understanding. Such variations within the atomistic approach also mean, in effect, that some learners are holistic in relation to parts of the material while others are atomistic in relation to these same parts. This is important not only to the understanding of these parts but also to learning to learn. The less atomistic the approach is (the more holistic in relation to parts it is), the easier is the shift to a thoroughgoing holistic approach. An important SKILL IN LEARNING 67 aspect of learning to learn takes place within the atomistic approach when there is understanding and learning of progressively larger parts and an increasing completeness in the understanding of parts. But the biggest stumbling-block occurs when the progression halts and learning becomes fixated to memorizing parts of a certain complexity. Learning to learn then becomes equivalent to learning to memorize as opposed to learning to organize.
Within the holistic approach, there are also variations in understanding and learning.
And since learning materials vary in complexity, to be atomistic in relation to a very complex material may involve more organization, analysis and interpretation, than to be holistic in relation to a rather simple material.
This is because the precise meanings of a holistic and an atomistic approach are not fixed but are instead a function of the learning material concerned. The distinction between the two approaches centres upon the main difference in approach to a given learning material. And just as the nature of the learning material may vary, so the meaning of the main difference in approach may vary too. There is the further problem of the difference between understanding or performance and learning.
Learning is equivalent to what is new to understanding. What has been learned may be many very different things, ranging from previously unknown specific facts to an entirely help me do my essay fresh conception of a very complex subject matter or phenomenon.
What is new in the latter case cannot be ascertained solely on the basis of what has been understood in a particular instance, but is dependent on the previous understanding of the subject matter or the phenomenon, i. What may also have been learned, in addition to a new understanding, is the skill of learning, i. Skill in learning is dependent upon sensitivity to the material and the exploration both of the content of the material and of the relevance of organizational principles to the content. In any particular learning situation, there may be a complex interplay between two groups of elements.
On the one hand there is the content of the task and its organization.
To be skilled in learning, then, means to be deep, holistic and complete in approach and understanding. As we have already suggested, the most important aspect of this is the open help me do my essay exploration and use of the possibilities inherent in the material, allied to a consideration of relevant previous knowledge. It is this kind of exploration of relevant knowledge and of 68 THE EXPERIENCE OF LEARNING relevant principles of organization that represents skill in learning in the deepest sense, and it also represents learning to learn in its deepest sense. Skill in Studying In this closing section of the chapter, we shall be concerned with the relationship between skill in learning and skill in studying.
This relationship is an important one which is often overlooked. Interesting though these techniques are, they represent relatively superficial and peripheral help me do my essay aspects of the activity of studying.
Thus, for example, underlining should be seen as a part of reading a text and notetaking as a part of listening to and making use of a lecture presentation. On similar grounds, even the skills of reading, listening, writing and problem-solving do not in themselves constitute skill in studying, for they cannot be considered in isolation from the main units of the activity of studying as it takes place in educational settings. In an educational setting, such skills are practised within the framework of a course structure which is also linked to an examination system. And it is these assessed courses which comprise the main units of study activity (Svensson, 1976, 1977, 1981). Consequently, our focus continues to be that of skill in performing a task, but we are now considering a more extensive task which encompasses, in varying combinations, the kinds of tasks we examined earlier. What the task and the skill mean depends on the amount of material assigned and read, the time allocated for its study, and the form, conditions and result of the examination.