Harvard referencing paraphrasing

He had almost completed his degree in Swedish (Literature and English), and he held a diploma of the Institute of Printing. She had trained initially as a laboratory assistant, but for more than 10 years she had been a housewife. His studies included Russian, Economics and Political Science. Since the age of seven, Dave had spent only one year outside the educational system, working in a bank. The text which the participants were asked to read is 3,750 words in length, and is divided into three sections, without sub-headings. The first section (850 words) deals with the phenomenon of classical conditioning and starts with an example of how, as a result of being tortured, a prisoner has been conditioned to respond with convulsions at the mere sight of the pair of electrodes which have been used to torture him. Following this, the basic principles and terminology of classical condition- ing, which the example illustrates, are described. The second part of the text (550 words) contains a corresponding presentation of quality custom essay instrumental conditioning. Besides briefly introducing the basic principles (the idea of reinforcement as a means of controlling behaviour, punishment, shaping), the harvard referencing paraphrasing name of Skinner is mentioned and his Skinner-box is explained. The rest of the text deals with learning through language and mainly contains a presentation of some findings from our own previous research. First an attempt is made to introduce the idea of qualitative differences in approach to learning in terms harvard referencing paraphrasing of the distinction between a deep and a surface approach. This is followed by a presentation of qualitative differences in the outcome of learning which are related to these differences in approach. This is done by means of an example illustrating how different people recalled a passage in a text, some focusing on conclusions while others focused on reproducing the text as such or on the 76 the experience of learning harvard referencing paraphrasing superficial mention of various parts of it (as has been described in Chapters 2 and 3).

The text custom college term papers thus had a clear pedagogical intention and the general mode of presenting results and knowledge from scientific studies corresponds to what can be found in many other texts having similar aims (the text is a chapter from a book of readings in psychology used at upper-secondary school). Several examples are used to illustrate and back up the general statements made and principles presented. Findings As a preliminary to discussing the kind of text which has been used here as an object of learning, it is essential to make a distinction between the information it contains and the messages it is intended to convey.

What it intends to make known about learning can be described at different levels of generality. For instance, at the most general level the text has been written so as to provide some kind of map in terms of which learning processes and events can be understood.

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However, within the text there are also many statements which have an obvious message character, i.

Since the text introduces the field of learning as an area of scientific inquiry, it also aims to introduce basic technical terms such as conditioning and stimulus, and to show the reader how different everyday behaviours and processes can be interpreted. As an aid to understanding, the author employs various techniques such as simplification and analogy to adapt the content as well as the linguistic form to the assumed interests and preconceived notions of his readers. The text opens harvard referencing paraphrasing with a rather dramatic scene from a Greek prison where a man is being tortured with electrodes. After having been exposed to this torture for some time, the prisoner has only to see the electrodes and he responds with convulsions. Following this example, it is pointed out that what the prisoner has been going through can be described as an instance of learning, and an explanation is then given of how the illustration can be explained within the framework of learning. Instead of placing them in the usual way, behind my ears, they rubbed them over my whole body — my arms, legs, everywhere.

It was like being in the middle of a whirlwind, you feel like a piece of LEARNING FROM READING 77 straw in a threshing machine. This time I had the feeling that everything was electrified. I got a shock as soon as I saw the electrodes, even before they had touched me with them. He only moved it in front of my eyes and I felt the current the whole time. Then he touched the back of my head slightly with the electrode and I jerked.

They tried with the electrode from different angles. It made no difference where they put it, as soon as it came into my field of vision I felt the current. They laid me on the stretcher and took me back to my room.

However, the tortured prisoner in the example above had been exposed to experi- ences which caused him to react in a way quite unlike what he would have done had he never been tortured with electric current. This form of learning is called CLASSICAL CONDITIONING.

Contact with the charged electrode (unconditioned stimulus)... Starting with excerpts from the recalls, we can see how Dick, Dora and Dave retold this passage. Dick: Yes, It starts with a story about conditioning, classical conditioning.

They had taken an example there about a man who was being tortured with electrodes and things in a Greek torture-chamber.

On several occasions he had been given electric shocks and sort of become afraid of them. After that it was enough for him to see them to feel the electricity pass through his body.

There was a man who had been tortured with electrical. Dave: A Greek was being tortured by the Greek junta and this was used as an example of classical conditioning, that is of conditioned responses. The person who was being tortured also got to see the electrodes, which gave the electrical shocks and gradually he sort of felt the electricity in his body just by seeing the electrodes.

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