Essay writing services usa

This is not a question of whether one style of learning is objectively more appropriate to some inherent characteristics of the subject-matter, but rather of how the tasks set in an undergraduate arts or science course may be biased towards the use of one or the other style. Scientific thinking does indeed involve much attention to details, logical analysis, and strict adherence to procedures, but it also requires students to interpret data in relation to their own experience. If the perceived context of learning overemphasizes one style, then students may develop inadequate approaches to learning. These arguments suggest that greater variety in learning tasks, and in forms of teaching, would probably be beneficial to students in all subject areas. As we have already seen, freedom in learning is valued by students in all subject areas and is related to deep approaches to learning. Freedom of choice, however, should be complemented by a provision of clear frameworks within which that choice is exercised. Unstructured freedom is unlikely to develop versatile learning skills. The single most important message to emerge from these research findings is that intense effort must be made in course planning, and in the setting of assessment questions, to avoid presenting a learning context which is perceived by students to require, or reward, surface approaches.

It is useless, for example, simply to tell students that verbatim reproduction of information in an examination is wrong, to expect this warning to discourage surface approaches, and to blame the students when it does not. If students feel that there is insufficient time to study the examined topics properly (perhaps because of the demands of other courses), or if they have experienced inadequate teaching, or if they are given high marks for reproducing lecture notes, or if their previous knowledge within the area is insufficiently developed, then they will feel constrained to use surface approaches. Only by studying the internal relationships between how students perceive course demands and how they approach studying can the complexity, and apparent paradoxes, in student learning be understood.

In the last analysis, these two facets of staff development are inseparable. Our attention should be on the quality of learning, not simply on how to improve the techniques of teaching. Different students want different things from higher education and respond differently to similarly perceived conditions. Some cope better than others with adverse assessment and teaching conditions, and only part of the variation in the quality of learning is explained by contexual influences. But it would be a mistake to try to force a dichotomy between student characteristics and context in understanding how students learn. This leads to the last implication of the results to be discussed here. Lecturers in higher education can do much to help their students improve their approaches to learning.

There are compelling arguments for trying to change this attitude. Not the least powerful of these arguments derives from the results of the essay writing services usa research reported here. Students see help with approaches to studying to be an essential part of good teaching. At the same time, staff would find that their involvement in such programmes would increase their own awareness of the effects of teaching and assessment on their students and so help to make them more effective teachers. Acknowledgements The research reported here was supported by a grant from the Social Science Research Council (now the Economic and Social Research Council). In this chapter an even broader focus is used to take account of the personal context from which the student views studying in terms of personal goals and values, as well as the demands of courses and lectures.

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The experience of learning also depends on the institutional context — the way in which a particular educational institution operates, with its norms, values and traditions, and its particular procedures for teaching and assessment. In this chapter, we shall build up a broad picture of the world of the learner by exploring these various levels of description through case Itudies of particular students. Whereas I was inclined to take decisions fairly quickly on certain things, now I do have certain experience having studied a bit of psychology and sociology in places and I do try and perhaps see how things are going to interrelate and affect people — spend a bit more time on it and be a bit more thoughtful than I was before. Describing the world of the learner must take account of both institutional and personal contexts for study. What are the formal demands of the assessment system — what sort of understandings are valued and rewarded by the formal curriculum? The quotations above show the diversity of these changes, and the essay writing services usa previous chapter showed some of the ways in which the institutional context influence the outcomes of learning.

A similar interpretation of the effects of assessment was provided by Becker, Geer and Hughes (1968).

In fact, if you try to coursework writer really learn something, it would handicap you as far as getting a grade goes. At a more general level, the interaction of the education institution and the students can lead to particular sub-cultures. Clark and Trow (1966) described this interaction as follows: Two broad sets of factors shape the nature of the orientations and relationships of students in college.

The first set flows from the character of the larger society. Students come to college with certain resources — material, moral, intellectual, emotional, and cultural. These resources are largely determined essay writing services usa by the life experiences the Students have had, and these in turn are shaped by the statuses they and their parents have held in the larger society. The prior social locations and experiences also shape aspiration: the kinds of lives the students envision for themselves in a essay writing services usa rapidly changing society. The second set of determinants derives from the nature of the colleges 168 THE EXPERIENCE OF LEARNING If.

A college is not simply an aggregation of students, teachers, and administrators. Although the character of a college is greatly influenced by the nature of its staff and students, it also has qualities and characteristics which are essay writing services usa to some extent independent of the people who fill its halls and offices at any given moment. In our terms Clark and Trow were showing how distinctive sub-cultures emerged from the differing experiences of institutional and personal contexts of learning. Clark and Trow suggested four main analytical categories to describe these sub-cultures. They are not describing types of student, as a student may well participate in several sub-cultures, and the actual sub-cultures that exist may well combine aspects of more than one type. The four main sub-cultures were labelled collegiate, voca- tional, academic and non-conformist. The collegiate culture is the stereotype of college life, a world of sport and campus fun — some gesture is made to studying, but only in terms of the minimum requirements to gain a degree. The academic culture, present on every campus, is the sub-culture of serious intellectual effort applied to the world of knowledge and ideas.

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