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If the research shows that students perceived a difference in the writing environments, further research would need to be done to determine if, in fact, understanding the difference in writing environments might lead to different outcomes. If the transition from high school writing to university writing could be made easier for students, then UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT perhaps more students might make the transition successfully. It is not possible, therefore, to comment on either on the basis of this study.
Scope of the Study The findings of this study may be able to inform a broad range of first-year writing programs in Canada, programs in which the teaching of academic essay-writing in first-year university classes has been, and continues to be, a problem due to the variety of discourses in which first-writers find themselves. In addition, the findings might inform the practice of both secondary and post-secondary instructors by foregrounding the effect of writing environments on student learning. UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT Assumptions Underlying the study were the following assumptions: 1. Student perceptions of writing can be identified through a quantitative survey and through individual interviews. The difference in writing environments between high school and first-year university would be recognized by students. This study is predicated on the assumption that students would be able to distinguish between important features of the essay write service two writing environments. Students would be able to articulate their perceptions of the writing environments, both in high school and in first- year university, and be able to make judgments about the coursework writers value of the instruction they received in high school relative to the instruction they received in first-year university.
Students would be able to discuss the kinds of writing instruction that existed in high school in both their English Language Arts classes and their other content area classes and be able to compare it to the kinds of writing essay write service instruction that existed in first-year 26 university. UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT best online essay editing service 27 5. An underlying assumption of the cognitive learning theory perspective is that the way in which students perceive, interpret and process the information they receive from their writing environments would be perceivable and reportable. This focus on information processing is the focus of much of cognitive theory. In cognitive theory, there is also an assumption that individual perception may differ from social constructions of reality. This is why it was important to interview individual students to determine whether their perceptions of the learning experience were similar.
Cognitive theorists also theorize that different aspects of experience cannot be studied in isolation from one another. Definition of Terms The following terms have been used throughout this essay write service study and have been defined as follows: Academic Essay - is defined here as an assignment that is written in response to a question. Students are expected to present a point of view (expressed in a thesis statement) that is informed by research. The aim is to develop a supporting argument for the thesis proposed. UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT 28 Academic Writing - is broadly defined as any written assignments at the university level that fulfills an educational purpose.
First-year Student - is any student who is attending university for the first time and is taking all first-year courses. Literary Focus English Language Arts Course - emphasizes the aesthetic uses of language: language that enlightens, fosters understanding and empathy, reflects culture, expresses feelings and experience, and brings enjoyment (Manitoba Curriculum Guide, 2000). Novice Writer - essay write service refers to any writer who enters a new discourse community and has to learn all the protocols that are associated with that new discourse. For the purposes of this thesis, novice writers will refer to first-year university students. Secondary Student - is a student who is studying in a high school setting.
UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT 29 Transactional Focus English Language Arts Course - emphasizes the pragmatic uses of language: language that informs, directs, persuades, plans, analyzes, argues, and explains. Transactional Focus addresses a variety of informal and formal discourse, ranging from notes, telephone calls, and oral discussions to reports, feature articles, formal presentations, business letters, and documentaries (Manitoba Curriculum Guide, 2000). Writing Expectations - refers both to student expectations in high school and first-year university and teacher and instructor expectations in high school and first-year university. None of the current research, however, has followed a single group of students, recording their respective experiences of the high school and university writing environments, as the students make the transition from high school to university.
UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT Chapter Two Literature Review Introduction The writing students are required to complete in high school is often very different from the writing that they are expected to complete in first-year university (Carroll, 2002).
Even students who had been successful writers in high school sometimes struggle at university. A particular difficulty experienced by students making the transition to college or university is in understanding faculty expectations for academic writing. Carroll (2002) also observed that first-year students were expected to write more complex papers addressing challenging texts that require greater depth of understanding and a rhetorical sophistication for which they may not be ready. Though it appears from the Sanoff (2006) 31 study that high school teachers think that they are adequately preparing high school students for UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT 32 the essay write service rigours of academic writing in first- year university, first-year university instructors believe that students are coming to them unprepared.
The disconnect between teachers and instructors appears to be one of the difficulties that students face when they are transitioning from the high school writing environment to the firstyear writing environment.