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GeselP, from an examination of 1,260 samples of writing from grades I. An investigation by the present writer shows, however, that sex differences are plainly evident in the writing of children of eight years of age, i. The writings were taken at random from thousands of samples submitted by the public schools of Ontario. Group 1 con- tained samples of the writing of boys and girls aged from seven years ten months to eight years two months. Group 2 from eight years ten months to nine years two months, and so on, each group thus centering definitely upon a certain age with a maximum variation of four months in the ages of any one group. The seven groups thus formed a definite series of writings of children aged eight to fourteen. The groups so prepared were given to ten judges who were asked to divide them according to sex. The results are given in the following table which shows the percentage of correct judgments of each essay service cheap judge in each group for boys, girls, and total. The average of correct judgments in all groups for each judge is shown and also the average in each group for all judges. Table Showing Percentage of Correct Judgments on Sex IN THE Handwriting of Children Aged 8 to essay service cheap 14. Accuracy in Handwriting as related to School Intelligence and Sex. The following peculiarities were found to be present in from eighty to eighty- five per cent, of the cases examined. This is especially noticeable in the loops of letters which come above the line e. This buy research paper urgently is shown by the much greater number of small errors: made and corrected later by boys. The follow- ing table gives the results : Table Showing Percentage of Correct Judgments of Three Judges on the Basis of Sex Characteristics Outlined Above. In some few cases, the handwriting lacks individual characteristics but shows plainly 66 the style of copy which it imitates. Such imitation of copy when car- ried to an abnormally high degree eliminates individual char- acteristics. Accordingly Preyer has distinguished between natural writing in which the letters and connections are formed essay writing services us in a manner peculiar to the individual, and artificial writing, in which the copy is so closely imitated that individual peculiari- ties do not appear. Ufer is nearer the truth when he remarks that the writing of children begins with the artificial type and gradually approximates to the natural.
Rusk remarks that Ufer neglects to consider hand press- ure and speed, which also show individual differences.
It must be quite clear from the preceding sections of this chapter that any attempt to teach a single, uniform style of writing must end in failure. Naturally, these peculiarities are enhanced and developed as soon as the writer shakes off the bonds with which a narrow and strict system of teaching ties him. We all know, from our own experience, that we develop a style of our own as soon as we are not compelled to follow a definite copy, and that style surely will be the one which is easiest and most natural for the individual concerned, in which the qualities which consti- tute a satisfying style, speed, beauty and legibility are com- bined in a proportion which seems adequate to the writer. The question is, then, whether the teaching of writing should not take into account the undoubted fact that each individual should thesis coaching have and will have a style peculiar to him, and instead of aiming to produce a uniform style of writing in all pupils, rather aim to improve the individual style of each pupil, per- mitting very wide divergencies.
An even stronger argument in favour of the recognition of individuality in writing is the fact that almost every school child develops two styles of writing. The one used in writing exercises, essays and the like, is formal, conventional, and approximates very closely to the copy used in the writing classes.
This private style, so to speak, invariably forms the basis of the style of writing used in adult life. This being true, it is at once obvious why our schools pro- duce so many poor writers and yet spend so much time in teaching the subject. The writing classes recognize and deal only with the formal and unnatural writing which the child will never use in actual life. Consequently, a tremendous pro- 68 portion of the time and effort spent in formal writing classes is absolutely and entirely wasted. But it is only by developing this natural style to its best that we can produce a good, easy, satisfactory hand which can be used in every-day business life. In the teaching of writing, as in any other subject, the best results can be attained only by painstaking study of the aptitudes and peculiarities of the individual writer. To try to make all children write an iden- tical hand is as foolish as to expect them all to have identical ability, identical tastes, and identical physical qualities in identical proportions. The instrument most widely used in the teaching of writ- ing to secure uniformity of product is the copy book. The discussion of the use and the abuse of copy in writing classes is, therefore, germane to the present topic.
The use of copy- books is based upon the idea that, as writing is learned largely through imitation, the more perfect the copy to be imitated the more perfect will be the imitation. The copy is not produced by the writing move- ment at all, and, therefore, does not suggest it, but rather the slow drawing movement of which the perfect copy is the pro- duct. Further, it is much easier essay service cheap for the child to imitate a movement which it sees than to imitate the product of that movement, for the latter imitation implies an excessive power of imagination. The child who is set a copy and told to imi- tate it has both these difficulties to contend with, and the addi- tional discouragement of realizing that his best efforts cannot even approximate the copy set. It is, in fact, an impossible task for the child, and, consequently, can end only in discour- agement, a relaxation of effort, and little or no progress in mastering the art of writing. Further, if the improvement is to be worth while and permanent it must be based upon the iFreeman, F. This formal writing should go by the board since it is useless and wasteful, and essay service cheap every effort should be directed to- wards enhancing the beauty and legibility and increasing the speed of that style of writing which comes most easily and naturally to the child. All this does not mean that there are no limitations to the differences which legitimately occur in writing.