Essay homework help online
I find that the courses I do most work on are the courses where I get on with the tutors best... That to me is more important than the procedure of the coursework, you know. It usually takes, I think most people like, I certainly like to sit down on my own and go at my own speed. Now the lecturers certainly assume that we know it and they just keep going. Lack of information about performance makes further learning more difficult.
There is a vital connecting link here between what teachers in higher education do and how students approach learning, as the second part of the Lancaster study will show. We have already seen how interest in the learning task for its own sake tends to evoke a deep approach. Logically, interest in the task is likely to be greater if the student has a favourable attitude towards the subject-matter to which it refers and if the students perceive themselves to have choice over the content and method essay homework help online of study. In reading a particular bit of the book that I thought was relevant I was relating it to the overall arguments within the book. But that particular approach was a product of my desire to sort of do a bit of creative, original work. I probably would have just, sort of, taken out the main points and strung them together in a typical essay form. THE CONTEXT OF LEARNING On the other hand, freedom in learning brings with essay homework help online it greater responsibilities. Lack of structure and clarity in the goals of study may defeat the intentions behind greater choice, at any rate for some students. You have to take responsibility for the work yourself. But the wide variation in styles of learning preferred by students, together with the logical and empirical links between interest, approach and outcome, suggest that variety in the mix of learning tasks and some choice over subject matter is desirable. The Context of Learning in Different Subject Areas Even the casual observer of higher education cannot fail to notice that important differences in the context of learning are associated with different subject areas. It is clear from previous research that contrasting academic departments are inhabited by different kinds of lecturers and students. By far the most pervasive contrasts are between arts and science subjects, and between professional and non-professional courses.
Whether these different demands are essentially culturally determined or in some way inherent in the subject-matter of different disciplines is not important here: our concern is with the different perceptions of students in different subject essay homework help online areas.
Students interviewed in the Lancaster study (Ramsden, 1981) were aiked to identify possible differences in approaches to learning and learning contexts in different subject areas. Not unexpectedly, the dominant contrast made by these students was between science and arts 156 THE EXPERIENCE OF LEARNING disciplines. Science and arts students agree on what the differences are. Learning tasks in science are typically described as hierarchical, logical, heterogeneous, and rule- and procedure-governed. In these other subjects you can just sort of go on and on: "I think this, I think that".
They have to look ahead to an answer: we have to look in.
The manipulation of concepts and objects within the subject-matter domain, the emphasis on procedure-building, rules, methods, and details are characteristic of operation learning and the science approaches described THE CONTEXT OF LEARNING 157 by the students.
The description and interpretation of the relations between topics in a more general way is the defining characteristic of comprehension learning and is related by these students to typical approaches in arts and social science disciplines. These differences are in turn related by the students to the different demands of the context of learning in arts and science departments (see Ramsden, 1981). It should be emphasized that we are not maintaining that these differences are immutable differences between subject areas. For full understanding of any complex subject- matter, according to Pask, both styles of learning need to be employed. But it may well be that differing disciplinary emphases inhibit, at least for some students, the development of a versatile style of learning in which both comprehension and operation learning are appropriately used. At its logical extreme, this perceived bias in tasks typically set could lead to science students being unable to describe the meaning of what they know, and arts students being incapable of deductive reasoning. The next step in examining the relationship between subject area contexts and approaches to studying is to ask whether deep and surface approaches to learning reveal themselves differently in different contexts.
Laurillard has found an equivalent distinction in approaches to problem-solving, and parallels with these categories can also be seen in relation to listening to lectures and writing essays. In normal studying the surface approach implies not Only a concentration on words or details to the detriment of under- Itanding, but also an over-awareness of assessment demands which leads to an intention to reproduce knowledge.
In the Lancaster interviews both deep and surface approaches in normal studying were found clearly, but were expressed in different ways in different subject areas, because of the requirements of typical learning tasks in the different contexts. From the interviews it emerged that even a deep approach to learning talks in science departments often demands an initial concentration on details which is empirically hard to separate from a surface approach. This means that the descriptive category needs to be redefined somewhat in order to include this prior stage.
In the humanities, essay homework help online in contrast, a deep Approach is revealed more commonly by the student stressing, right from the itart, an intention to re-interpret the material in a personal way. In 158 THE EXPERIENCE OF LEARNING describing surface approaches, science students are more likely to stress an over-concentration on techniques and procedural details, while the arts and social science students tend to report a more generalized, vague approach — oversimplifying in reading or essay- writing, or memorizing unrelated generalities in their preparation for assessments.