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At the same time there were 1,941 infringements by subsonic jets. Concorde rarely features in the list of the ten noisiest take-offs each month at Heathrow, and subsonic aircraft at Kennedy have been recorded at 121 PNdB — twice the limit.

At Dulles Airport, Washington, Concorde has averaged 119. This is 12-13 PNdB higher than the averages for subsonic aircraft. The noise levels have been going down, and with them, the number of complaints. While 500,000 people are affected by aircraft noise in Washington, 2,000,000 are affected at Kennedy. It has been estimated that 40,000 extra people will be affected by noise if 80 Concordes serve 12 US cities. Bumps in the runway at Kennedy force Concorde to take off closer to heavily populated areas, but due to advanced flight control characteristics Concorde can begin to bank at an altitude of 100ft.

Students are encouraged to articulate their own perceptions of study demands and to pool knowledge of the strategies they have developed in their everyday studying. The second is concerned with noise levels around airports caused during take-off and landing. This second theme is common to all aircraft, and the issue at stake is whether Concorde is significantly noisier than subsonic aircraft. Comparisons with other aircraft are complicated by the changing nature essay customer service of jet fleets. Eventually these older aircraft will be phased out, but at the moment Concorde is being compared with them. There are dangers, also, in questionnaire surveys of reactions of people living around airports. Workers at Filton and Toulouse would hardly try to ban Concorde landing near their homes, however noisy it is! Finally, there is a variation in recorded noise levels dependent on the skill of the pilot, and load factors of the aircraft. Subsonic aircraft have been measured at twice the legal noise level, struggling to take off with heavy loads in adverse conditions. Concorde has been flying under-loaded, with skilled pilots, who have even been reported banking away from noise monitors. Given this variety of problems, it would seem likely that Concorde causes even more noise pollution than data suggests, and that in comparison with subsonic jets will become comparatively worse as time goes on.

Indeed, its strength is to demonstrate how learning might be explond, and not to prescribe how it should be pursued. Learning-to-learn is not merely redemptive J (Roueche and Snow, 1977), an optional adjunct for the weaker student, : but something from which all students can benefit. As Chapter 9 showed, j perceived good teaching — and particularly, help with studying — is strongly associated with an orientation by students towards meaning and understanding. As a fully integrated part of an undergraduate course, learning-to-learn can contribute to the quality of student learning.

Creating a Context for Learning Skill in learning, as Lennart Svensson reminds us in Chapter 4, is not equivalent to skill in studying. In coming to a full understanding of the UNDERSTANDING TEACHING AND TEACHING FOR UNDERSTANDING 205 experience of learning, it is also necessary to consider the course and institutional contexts in which learning takes place. The chapter drew attention to critical differences between subject areas in the weight given to contrasting learning styles and in the varying guises which deep and surface approaches typically assumed. This searching analysis of the context of learning has several important implications for an experiential conception of the teaching-learning process. Interest, commitment and approach are products of the interaction between student and situation. Student learning is subject to a dynamic and richly complex array of influences which are both direct and indirect, intentional and unintended.

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When they plan their courses and devise assessment questions, lecturers can make strenuous efforts to avoid seeming to demand surface approaches or to reward students who adopt them. And lecturers can do more to help students improve their approaches to learning, in ways indicated earlier in the present chapter. In part at least, like student-centred teaching (Bligh, 1982, p. Positive efforts need to be made to engage in dialogue with students. We noted earlier that coming to know students as individuals is widely valued in contemporary higher education, and there are no necessary barriers to an equivalent emphasis on open discussion of course perceptions and learning experiences.

Yet paradoxically, a lack of openness and a reluctance to clarify or patiently explain may have precisely the opposite effect to that intended: mechanical or reproductive can somebody write my essay strategies, born of student uncertainty and anxiety. Conventional evaluation or feedback questionnaires tend to reflect a teacher-centred conception of the teaching-learning process. The Approaches to Studying inventory, by contrast, is concerned with how students go about learning and how they perceive course or departmental milieux. Students indicate their strength of agreement or disagreement with statements linked to the scales outlined on pp. Indeed, to seek to view teaching in the round, conjunctively and holistically, is perhaps the most important element in an experiential conception. This might seem a very obvious point to make, but obvious or not, it is at odds with contemporary practice. Just as it has been commonplace to consider lecturers and teaching in isolation from students and essay customer service learning, so are there customary but unwarranted bound- aries which separate discussion of curriculum from discussion of assessment and discussion of teaching.

This compartmentalization is apparent not only in the literature of education, but also in the procedures which colleges and universities follow in designing and administering courses. Marking and assessment schemes may be devised or modified without reference to the possible consequences for what or how students learn , or without regard to any ensuing tensions between assessment as feedback and assessment as evaluation of student achievement. How many academic share the view of Elton (1982, p. Where conflicts do arise between assessment and teaching strategies, a holistic view can help to resolve them, as a recent Australian study shows (Newbie and Jaeger, 1983 ). But the effect of the reform was in precisely the opposite direction. Once it became apparent to students that the risk of failing the new ward-based essay customer service clinical assessment was low, they began to spend little time in the wards and made studying for the much more hazardous theoretical component of Anal assessment a priority. A consideration of the J situation in the round therefore made it possible to restore equilibrium J without abandoning the desire to innovate which had prompted the J earlier reforms. When students then press for more j individual help, tutors may be driven to plead, and with justification, that J their formal teaching load and their marking commitments make this 1 impractical. A more unified view, weighing the respective needs and J perspectives of lecturers and students, could provide the basis for a more J balanced strategy. An Australian survey of coursework assignments in a range of disciplines J (Roe, 1974) revealed similar shortcomings. One step which was therefore taken was to identify the skills required for independent learning (see Panel 11.

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